Gluteus maximus muscle

Gluteus maximus
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The gluteus maximus, with surrounding fascia. Skin covering area removed.
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Gluteus maximus is the most superficial muscle of the hips, here visible at top centre with skin removed from the entire leg
Details
Origin Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion Gluteal tuberosity of the femur and iliotibial tract
Artery Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
Nerve Inferior gluteal nerve ( L5, S1 and S2 nerve roots)
Actions External rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip
Antagonist Iliacus, psoas major and psoas minor
Identifiers
Latin Musculus glutaeus maximus
Dorlands
/Elsevier
m_22/12549211
TA A04.7.02.006
FMA 22314
Anatomical terms of muscle

The gluteus maximus (also known collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, as the gluteal muscles, and sometimes referred to informally as the "glutes") is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips. Its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks.

Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, [1] connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates have much flatter hips and can not sustain standing erectly.

The muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, and collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa.

Structure

Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions, showing origin and insertion of gluteus maximus muscle.

It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, and roughly the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium (the hip bone), immediately above and behind it; and from the posterior surface of the lower part of the sacrum, the base of the spine, and the side of the coccyx, the tailbone; from the aponeurosis of the erector spinae ( lumbodorsal fascia), the sacrotuberous ligament, and the fascia covering the gluteus medius ( gluteal aponeurosis). The fibers are directed obliquely downward and lateralward; The gluteus maximus has two insertions:

Bursae

Three bursae are usually found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle:

  • One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter;
  • a second, (often missing), is situated on the tuberosity of the ischium;
  • a third is found between the tendon of the muscle and that of the vastus lateralis.
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