Globe is in southern Gila County at 33°23′59″N 110°46′54″W / 33°23′59″N 110°46′54″W / 33.39972; -110.78167 (33.399858, −110.781570), in the valley of Pinal Creek, a north-flowing tributary of the Salt River. U.S. Route 60 passes through the city, leading northeast through the Fort Apache Indian Reservation 87 miles (140 km) to Show Low, and west 87 miles (140 km) to Phoenix. The western terminus of U.S. Route 70 is in Globe at US 60 on the east side of town; US 70 leads southeast through the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation 77 miles (124 km) to Safford and 2,385 miles (3,838 km) to its eastern terminus at Atlantic, North Carolina. Arizona State Route 77 leads south from Globe 36 miles (58 km) to Winkelman, and Roosevelt is 31 miles (50 km) to the northwest via State Route 188.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Globe has a total area of 18.2 square miles (47.1 km2), of which 0.01 square miles (0.03 km2), or 0.07%, is water. The town of Miami, Arizona, is 6 miles (10 km) west of Globe's downtown. Globe, Miami, and the unincorporated areas nearby (including Inspiration, Claypool and Central Heights-Midland City) are commonly called "Globe-Miami".