Globalization

Globalization (or globalisation; see spelling differences) is the increasing interaction of people, states, or countries through the growth of the international flow of money, ideas, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration that has social and cultural aspects. It involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology, and data. [1] [2] The steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure. All of these improvements we enjoy in the modern era have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. [3] [4] [5]

Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some even to the third millennium BC. [6] [7] Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. [8] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term globalization is recent, only establishing its current meaning in the 1970s. [9]

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge. [10] Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. [11] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Academic literature commonly subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, and political globalization. [12]

Etymology and usage

The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. [13] One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. [14] Charles Taze Russell (of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society) coined a related term, corporate giants, in 1897 [15] to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. The term 'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, and in other senses since at least as early as 1944. [16] Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980's. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. [17] [18] Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects, articles, and discussions often stay focused on a single aspect of globalization. [19]

Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society." [1] In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." [20] In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole." [21]

In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state:

Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. ... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis; at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. ... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity (stretching), intensity, velocity and impact. [22]

Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. [23]

Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization:

is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world. [24]

Paul James defines globalization with a more direct and historically contextualized emphasis:

Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time. [25]

Manfred Steger, professor of global studies and research leader in the Global Cities Institute at RMIT University, identifies four main empirical dimensions of globalization: economic, political, cultural, and ecological. A fifth dimension—the ideological—cutting across the other four. The ideological dimension, according to Steger, is filled with a range of norms, claims, beliefs, and narratives about the phenomenon itself. [26]

James and Steger stated that the concept of globalization "emerged from the intersection of four interrelated sets of ' communities of practice' ( Wenger, 1998): academics, journalists, publishers/editors, and librarians." [9]:424 They note the term was used "in education to describe the global life of the mind"; in international relations to describe the extension of the European Common Market; and in journalism to describe how the "American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance". [9] They have also argued that four different forms of globalization can be distinguished that complement and cut across the solely empirical dimensions. [25] [27] According to James, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. A second form is agency-extended globalization, the circulation of agents of different institutions, organizations, and polities, including imperial agents. Object-extended globalization, a third form, is the movement of commodities and other objects of exchange. He calls the transmission of ideas, images, knowledge, and information across world-space disembodied globalization, maintaining that it is currently the dominant form of globalization. James holds that this series of distinctions allows for an understanding of how, today, the most embodied forms of globalization such as the movement of refugees and migrants are increasingly restricted, while the most disembodied forms such as the circulation of financial instruments and codes are the most deregulated. [28]

The journalist Thomas L. Friedman popularized the term "flat world", arguing that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow. [29]

Economist Takis Fotopoulos defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital, and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. He used "political globalization" to refer to the emergence of a transnational élite and a phasing out of the nation-state. Meanwhile, he used "cultural globalization" to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture. Other of his usages included " ideological globalization", " technological globalization", and "social globalization". [30]

Lechner and Boli (2012) define globalization as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different ways. [31]

Globophobia is used to refer to the fear of globalization, though it can also mean the fear of balloons. [32] [33] [34]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Globalisering
Alemannisch: Globalisierung
العربية: عولمة
aragonés: Globalización
asturianu: Globalización
azərbaycanca: Qloballaşma
Bân-lâm-gú: Choân-kiû-hoà
башҡортса: Глобалләшеү
беларуская: Глабалізацыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Глябалізацыя
български: Глобализация
bosanski: Globalizacija
brezhoneg: Bedeladur
čeština: Globalizace
Cymraeg: Globaleiddio
español: Globalización
Esperanto: Tutmondiĝo
euskara: Globalizazio
Fiji Hindi: Vaisvikaran
føroyskt: Alheimsgerð
français: Mondialisation
Gaeilge: Domhandú
ગુજરાતી: વૈશ્વિકરણ
한국어: 세계화
Հայերեն: Գլոբալացում
हिन्दी: वैश्वीकरण
hrvatski: Globalizacija
Ilokano: Globalisasion
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বিশ্বায়ন
Bahasa Indonesia: Globalisasi
íslenska: Hnattvæðing
italiano: Globalizzazione
Basa Jawa: Globalisasi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಾಗತೀಕರಣ
къарачай-малкъар: Глобализация
қазақша: Жаһандану
Kiswahili: Utandawazi
Latina: Globalizatio
latviešu: Globalizācija
Lëtzebuergesch: Globaliséierung
lietuvių: Globalizacija
Limburgs: Globalisering
македонски: Глобализација
Malagasy: Fanatontoloana
Bahasa Melayu: Globalisasi
Mirandés: Globalizaçon
монгол: Даяарчлал
Nederlands: Mondialisering
नेपाल भाषा: हलिमिकरण
norsk nynorsk: Globalisering
occitan: Globalizacion
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੰਸਾਰੀਕਰਨ
Piemontèis: Mondialisassion
polski: Globalizacja
português: Globalização
română: Globalizare
русиньскый: Ґлобалізація
русский: Глобализация
саха тыла: Глобализация
संस्कृतम्: वैश्वीकरणम्
Simple English: Globalization
slovenčina: Globalizácia
slovenščina: Globalizacija
کوردی: جیھانگیری
српски / srpski: Глобализација
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Globalizacija
svenska: Globalisering
Tagalog: Globalisasyon
татарча/tatarça: Глобальләшү
తెలుగు: ప్రపంచీకరణ
тоҷикӣ: Ҷаҳонишавӣ
Türkçe: Küreselleşme
українська: Глобалізація
Tiếng Việt: Toàn cầu hóa
Winaray: Globalisasyon
粵語: 全球化
žemaitėška: Gluobalėzacėjė
中文: 全球化