Glam metal

Glam metal (also known pejoratively as hair metal and often used synonymously with pop metal) is a subgenre of heavy metal, which features pop-influenced hooks and guitar riffs, and borrows from the fashion of 1970s glam rock.

Glam metal is influenced by music acts like Alice Cooper, Cheap Trick, Kiss, and Van Halen. It arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene, pioneered by bands such as Mötley Crüe, Ratt, Quiet Riot, Twisted Sister, Stryper, Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, and Dokken. It was also popular throughout the mid-late 1980s and early 1990s bringing to prominence bands including Poison, Skid Row, Cinderella and Warrant. Glam metal is associated with flashy clothing, makeup and notable for an overall androgynous aesthetic. Poison, for example, have long shaggy or backcombed hair, accessories, metal studs, leather, and make-up during their live performances.

Glam metal lost mainstream interest in the early 1990s as the perceived excesses of glam metal created a backlash against the genre. A factor in the decline of glam metal was the rise of grunge in the early 1990s, which had a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style. Glam metal has returned since the late 1990s and mid 2000s with reunions of many popular acts from the genre, as well as newer bands from the 2000s/2010s including the Darkness, Santa Cruz, Reckless Love, The Struts, and Steel Panther.

Characteristics, fashion, and terminology

Musically, glam metal combines a traditional heavy metal sound with elements of hard rock and punk rock,[6] adding pop-influenced catchy hooks and guitar riffs.[7][8] Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s (most notably thrash metal songs), they often feature shred guitar solos.[9] They also include extensive use of harmonies, particularly in the characteristic power ballads – slow, emotional songs that gradually build to a strong finale.[10] These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal. Lyrical themes often deal with love and lust, with songs often directed at a particular woman.[11]

Aesthetically glam metal draws heavily on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s,[12] often with very long backcombed hair, use of hair spray, use of make-up, gaudy clothing and accessories (chiefly consisting of tight denim or leather jeans, spandex, and headbands).[13] The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers, particularly MTV, whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre.[14] Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of drugs, strippers and late-night parties, which were widely covered in the tabloid press.[15]

Sociologist Deena Weinstein points to the large number of terms used to describe more commercial forms of heavy metal, which she groups together as lite metal. These include, beside glam metal: melodic metal, false metal, poodle bands, nerf metal, pop metal or metal pop, the last of which was coined by critic Philip Bashe in 1983 to describe bands such as Van Halen and Def Leppard.[11] AllMusic distinguishes pop metal, which refers to the whole pop-tinted hard rock and heavy metal scene of the 1980s (including Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Europe),[7] from hair metal, the characteristics of which are flashy clothing and heavy makeup (as embodied by Poison, and Mötley Crüe).[16] Use of the derogatory term hair metal started in the early 1990s, as grunge gained popularity at the expense of 1980s metal.[16] In the "definitive metal family tree" of his documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, anthropologist Sam Dunn differentiates pop metal, which includes bands like Def Leppard, Europe, and Whitesnake, from glam metal bands that include Mötley Crüe and Poison.[17]

Other Languages
العربية: جلام ميتال
български: Глем метъл
bosanski: Glam metal
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한국어: 글램 메탈
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hrvatski: Glam metal
Bahasa Indonesia: Glam Metal
íslenska: Glysþungarokk
italiano: Hair metal
עברית: גלאם מטאל
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magyar: Glam metal
македонски: Глам-метал
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Glam metal
Nederlands: Glam metal
norsk: Glam metal
norsk nynorsk: Puddelrock
polski: Glam metal
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română: Glam metal
русский: Глэм-метал
Scots: Glam metal
Simple English: Glam metal
slovenčina: Glam metal
српски / srpski: Глем метал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Glam metal
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svenska: Glam metal
Türkçe: Glam metal
українська: Глем-метал
中文: 華麗金屬