Giza pyramid complex

The Great Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids of the Giza Necropolis.jpg
The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures
Giza pyramid complex is located in Egypt
Giza pyramid complex
Shown within Egypt
LocationGiza City, Giza, Egypt
RegionMiddle Egypt
Coordinates29°58′34″N 31°7′58″E / 29°58′34″N 31°7′58″E / 29.97611; 31.13278
PeriodsEarly Dynastic Period to Late Period
Site notes
Part of"Pyramid fields from Giza to Dahshur" part of Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur
Inscription1979 (3rd Session)
Area16,203.36 ha (62.5615 sq mi)

The Giza pyramid complex, also called the Giza Necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza. All were built during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The site also includes several cemeteries and the remains of a workers' village.

The site is at the edges of the Western Desert, approximately 9 km (5 mi) west of the Nile River in the city of Giza, and about 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city centre of Cairo.

The Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre are the largest pyramids built in ancient Egypt, and they have historically been common as emblems of ancient Egypt in the Western imagination.[1][2] They were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.

Pyramids and Sphinx

Giza pyramid complex (map)
Aerial view from north of cultivated Nile valley with the pyramids in the background
The Great Sphinx partially excavated, photo taken between 1867 and 1899
Pyramids of Ghizeh. 1893. Egypt; heliogravures after original views. Wilbour Library of Egyptology. Brooklyn Museum

The Pyramids of Giza consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu and constructed c. 2580 – c. 2560 BC), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren) a few hundred meters to the south-west, and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinos) a few hundred meters farther south-west. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids.[3]

Khufu's pyramid complex

Khufu’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, now buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; diabase paving and nummulitic limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.[4][5] The valley temple was connected to a causeway which was largely destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. From this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king's pyramid. The king's pyramid has three smaller queen's pyramids associated with it and five boat pits.[6]:11–19 The boat pits contained a ship, and the 2 pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display.

Khufu's pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range.[3]

Khafre's pyramid complex

Khafre's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king's pyramid. The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre. Several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during successive excavations by Sieglin (1909–10), Junker, Reisner, and Hassan. Khafre's complex contained five boat-pits and a subsidiary pyramid with a serdab.[6]:19–26 Khafre's pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu Pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction—it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume. Khafre's pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex.[3]

Menkaure's pyramid complex

Menkaure's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king's pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure. During the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure. The king's pyramid has three subsidiary or queen's pyramids.[6]:26–35 Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.[3]


The Sphinx dates from the reign of king Khafre.[7] During the New Kingdom, Amenhotep II dedicated a new temple to Hauron-Haremakhet and this structure was added onto by later rulers.[6]:39–40

Tomb of Queen Khentkaus I

Khentkaus I was buried in Giza. Her tomb is known as LG 100 and G 8400 and is located in the Central Field, near the valley temple of Menkaure. The pyramid complex of Queen Khentkaus includes: her pyramid, a boat pit, a valley temple and a pyramid town.[6]:288–289

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Giza piramidaları
беларуская: Піраміды Гізы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Піраміды Гізы
български: Пирамиди в Гиза
bosanski: Piramide u Gizi
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖީޒާގެ ޕިރަމިޑް
Fiji Hindi: Pyramids of Giza
hrvatski: Piramide u Gizi
Bahasa Indonesia: Kompleks piramida Giza
Kiswahili: Piramidi za Giza
Lëtzebuergesch: Pyramide vu Gizeh
lietuvių: Gizos piramidės
македонски: Пирамиди во Гиза
Bahasa Melayu: Kompleks piramid Giza
Nedersaksies: Piramides van Giza
norsk nynorsk: Pyramidane ved Giza
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Giza piramidalari
پنجابی: اہرام مصر
Qaraqalpaqsha: Giza piramidaları
Soomaaliga: Giza Pyramids
српски / srpski: Велике пирамиде
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Velike piramide
татарча/tatarça: Cizä piramidaları
українська: Піраміди Гізи
žemaitėška: Gizas pėramėdės