Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Motto: "Montis Insignia Calpe" (Latin)
"Badge of the Rock of Gibraltar"[1]
Anthem: "God Save the Queen" (official)

"Gibraltar Anthem" (local)[2]
Location of  .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}Gibraltar  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Gibraltar  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Map of Gibraltar
Map of Gibraltar
StatusBritish Overseas Territory
CapitalGibraltar
36°8′N 5°21′W / 36°8′N 5°21′W / 36.133; -5.350
Largest district
(by population)
Westside
Official languagesEnglish
Spoken languagesEnglish
Spanish
Llanito
Ethnic groups
Gibraltarian[a]
British
Maghrebis
South Asian
Demonym(s)Gibraltarian
Llanito (colloquial)
GovernmentRepresentative democratic parliamentary dependency under constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
• Governor
Ed Davis
Fabian Picardo
• Mayor
Kaiane Aldorino
• UK government minister[b]
Alan Duncan MP
LegislatureParliament
Formation
• Captured
4 August 1704[3]
• Ceded
11 April 1713[4]
10 September 1967
• Joined the EEC
1 January 1973[c]
Area
• Total
6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0
Population
• 2015 estimate
32,194[5] (222nd)
• Density
4,328/km2 (11,209.5/sq mi) (5th)
GDP (PPP)2013 estimate
• Total
£1.64 billion
• Per capita
£50,941 (n/a)
HDI (2015)0.961[6]
very high · 5th
CurrencyGibraltar pound (£)[d] (GIP)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright[e]
Calling code+350[f]
Patron saint
ISO 3166 codeGI
Internet TLD.gi[g]
  1. ^ Of mixed Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese and Spanish descent.
  2. ^ Minister of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office with responsibility for Europe and the Americas.
  3. ^ As a Special Member State territory of the United Kingdom.
  4. ^ Coins and sterling notes are issued by the Government of Gibraltar.
  5. ^ Unlike all other UK dependencies except the British Indian Ocean Territory, since 16 June 1929.
  6. ^ 9567 from Spain before 10 February 2007.
  7. ^ The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states.

    UK Postcode: GX11 1AA
    [7]

Gibraltar (ər/; Spanish pronunciation: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.[8][9] It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.[10] It shares a maritime border with Morocco.

In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, which is only 8 miles (13 km) wide at this naval choke point. It remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through the strait.[11][12][13] Today Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling.[14][15][16][17]

The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory.[18][15] Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was also rejected.

History

View of the northern face of the Moorish Castle's Tower of Homage

Prehistory and Ancient History

Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave.[19] The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave.[20]

Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves, mostly of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia, especially around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name.[21] There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had largely abandoned the tradition of living in caves.[22]

During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance. The Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC, apparently using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci,[23] as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name perhaps of Phoenician origin.[24] Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period.[25] They settled at the head of the bay in what is today known as the Campo (hinterland) of Gibraltar.[26] The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people.[27]

Middle Ages

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count (or commander) of the territory.

The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for almost 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD.

Following a raid in 710, a predominately Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar (though most likely not in the bay or at the Rock itself).[28][29] Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula. Mons Calpe was renamed Jebel Tariq, the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar.[24]

In 1160, the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath (City of the Victory).[30] The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today.

From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada (in 1237 and 1374), the Marinids of Morocco (in 1274 and 1333) and the kings of Castile (in 1309).

Modern Era

In 1462, Gibraltar was captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia.[31]

After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar.[32] Six years later, Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos (Christian converts from Judaism) from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain.[33] In 1501, Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, and Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses today.

In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. The occupation of the town by Alliance forces caused the exodus of the population.[34][35]

As the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated and ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar (1779 to 1783), during the American War of Independence.

Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peace-time military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000. The first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more than 17,000 in 1860, as people from Britain and all around the Mediterranean (Italian, Portuguese, Maltese, Jewish and French) took up residence in the town.[36]

Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez. In the later 19th century, there were major investments in improving the fortifications and the port.[37]

Contemporary history

Shown here during the Second World War, a Douglas Dakota of BOAC is silhouetted at Gibraltar by the batteries of searchlights on the Rock, as crews prepare it for a night flight to the United Kingdom.

During the Second World War, Gibraltar's civilian population was evacuated, mainly to London, but also to parts of Morocco and Madeira and to Gibraltar Camp in Jamaica. The Rock was strengthened as a fortress. The naval base and the ships based there played a key role in the provisioning and supply of the island of Malta during its long siege. As well as frequent short runs (known as 'Club Runs') towards Malta to fly off aircraft reinforcements (initially Hurricanes but later, notably from the USN aircraft carrier Wasp, Spitfires), the critical Operation Pedestal convoy was run from Gibraltar in August 1942. This resupplied the island at a critical time in the face of concentrated air attacks from German and Italian forces. Spanish dictator Francisco Franco's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil frustrated a German plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix.

Buildings of the former HM Dockyard, Gibraltar, dating from the 1895 expansion

In the 1950s, Franco renewed Spain's claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar and restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain. Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain under British sovereignty in the Gibraltar sovereignty referendum, 1967, which led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order in 1969. In response, Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.[38] The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982 and fully reopened in 1985 before Spain's accession to the European Community.

In a referendum held in 2002, Gibraltarians rejected by an overwhelming majority (99%) a proposal of shared sovereignty on which Spain and Britain were said to have reached "broad agreement".[39][40] The British government has committed itself to respecting the Gibraltarians' wishes.[41] A new Constitution Order was approved in referendum in 2006. A process of tripartite negotiations started in 2006 between Spain, Gibraltar and the UK, ending some restrictions and dealing with disputes in some specific areas such as air movements, customs procedures, telecommunications, pensions and cultural exchange.[42]

In the British referendum on membership of the European Union 96% of Gibraltarians voted to remain on an 82% turnout.[43] Spain renewed calls for joint Spanish–British control of the peninsula;[44] these were strongly rebuffed by Gibraltar's Chief Minister.[45] On October 18, 2018, however, Spain seemed to have reached an agreement with the United Kingdom in relation to its objections to Gibraltar leaving the EU with Britain, with Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez stating, “Gibraltar will no longer be a problem in arriving at a Brexit deal.”[46]

Other Languages
Acèh: Gibraltar
Afrikaans: Gibraltar
Alemannisch: Gibraltar
አማርኛ: ጅብራልታር
Ænglisc: Calpis
العربية: جبل طارق
aragonés: Chibraltar
arpetan: Gibraltar
asturianu: Xibraltar
azərbaycanca: Cəbəli-Tariq
تۆرکجه: جبل الطارق
Bân-lâm-gú: Gibraltar
башҡортса: Гибралтар
беларуская: Гібралтар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гібральтар
български: Гибралтар
Boarisch: Gibraltar
bosanski: Gibraltar
brezhoneg: Jibraltar
català: Gibraltar
Чӑвашла: Гибралтар
Cebuano: Gibraltar
čeština: Gibraltar
chiTumbuka: Gibraltar
Cymraeg: Gibraltar
dansk: Gibraltar
Deutsch: Gibraltar
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަބަލްޠާރިޤު
dolnoserbski: Gibraltar
eesti: Gibraltar
Ελληνικά: Γιβραλτάρ
español: Gibraltar
Esperanto: Ĝibraltaro
estremeñu: Gibraltar
euskara: Gibraltar
Fiji Hindi: Gibraltar
føroyskt: Gibraltar
français: Gibraltar
Frysk: Gibraltar
Gaeilge: Giobráltar
Gaelg: Gibraaltar
Gagauz: Cebelitarık
Gàidhlig: Giobraltair
galego: Xibraltar
ગુજરાતી: જિબ્રાલ્ટર
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Gibraltar
한국어: 지브롤터
Hausa: Gibraltar
հայերեն: Ջիբրալթար
हिन्दी: जिब्राल्टर
hornjoserbsce: Gibraltar
hrvatski: Gibraltar
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জিব্রালটার
Bahasa Indonesia: Gibraltar
interlingua: Gibraltar
Interlingue: Gibraltar
íslenska: Gíbraltar
italiano: Gibilterra
עברית: גיברלטר
Basa Jawa: Gibraltar
Kapampangan: Gibraltar
ქართული: გიბრალტარი
қазақша: Гибралтар
kernowek: Jibraltar
Kinyarwanda: Giburalitari
Kiswahili: Gibraltar
kurdî: Cîbraltar
Кыргызча: Гибралтар
Ladino: Gibraltar
Latina: Gibraltaria
latviešu: Gibraltārs
Lëtzebuergesch: Gibraltar
лезги: Гибралтар
lietuvių: Gibraltaras
Ligure: Gibiltæra
Limburgs: Gibraltar
Lingua Franca Nova: Jibraltar
lumbaart: Gibiltera
македонски: Гибралтар
Māori: Kāmaka
მარგალური: გიბრალტარი
مازِرونی: جبل طارق
Bahasa Melayu: Gibraltar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gibraltar
монгол: Гибралтар
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျီဘရော်လ်တာ
Nāhuatl: Gibraltar
Nederlands: Gibraltar
Nedersaksies: Gibraltar
नेपाल भाषा: जिब्राल्टर
Nordfriisk: Gibraltaar
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jibrulta
norsk: Gibraltar
norsk nynorsk: Gibraltar
Nouormand: Dgibrâltar
Novial: Gibraltar
occitan: Gibartar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gibraltar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਿਬਰਾਲਟਰ
پنجابی: جبرالٹر
Patois: Jibralta
Piemontèis: Gibiltèra
Plattdüütsch: Gibraltar
polski: Gibraltar
português: Gibraltar
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gibraltar
română: Gibraltar
русский: Гибралтар
sardu: Gibraltar
Scots: Gibraltar
sicilianu: Gibbilterra
Simple English: Gibraltar
slovenčina: Gibraltár
slovenščina: Gibraltar
Soomaaliga: Jibraltaar
کوردی: گیبرالتار
српски / srpski: Гибралтар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gibraltar
Basa Sunda: Gibraltar
suomi: Gibraltar
svenska: Gibraltar
Tagalog: Gibraltar
Taqbaylit: Adrar n Ṭariq
татарча/tatarça: Гибралтар
tetun: Jibraltár
тоҷикӣ: Гибралтар
Türkçe: Cebelitarık
українська: Гібралтар
vèneto: Gibiltera
Tiếng Việt: Gibraltar
walon: Djibraltar
文言: 直布羅陀
Winaray: Gibraltar
Wolof: Jibraltaar
吴语: 直布罗陀
Xitsonga: Gibraltar
ייִדיש: גיבראלטאר
Yorùbá: Gibraltar
粵語: 直布羅陀
Zazaki: Cebelitarıq
Zeêuws: Hibraltar
中文: 直布罗陀