Germany

Federal Republic of Germany

Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]
Motto: 
"Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)
(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")
Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[b]
(English: "Song of Germany")
EU-Germany (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Germany.svg
Location of Germany (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Location of Germany
Capital
and largest city
Berlin[c]
52°31′N 13°23′E / 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517; 13.383
Official language
and national language
[2][d]
Ethnic groups
(2017)[2][3]
Religion
(2017)[4][5][6]
  • 57% Christian
  • 36% No religion
  • 7% Others / Undeclared
Demonym(s)German
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Angela Merkel
Wolfgang Schäuble
Daniel Günther
Andreas Voßkuhle
Legislature
Bundesrat
Bundestag
Formation
2 February 962
18 January 1871
9 November 1918
30 January 1933
1949–1990
8 May 1949
• Founded the EEC[f]
1 January 1958
3 October 1990
Area
• Total
357,386 km2 (137,988 sq mi)[7] (62nd)
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 83,019,200[8] (17th)
• Density
232/km2 (600.9/sq mi) (58th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$4.555 trillion[9] (5th)
• Per capita
$54,983[9] (18th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$4.117 trillion[9] (4th)
• Per capita
$49,692[9] (17th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 31.1[10]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.936[11]
very high · 5th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+49
ISO 3166 codeDE
Internet TLD.de and .eu

Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten )[g] is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres (137,988 sq mi),[7] and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying entirely in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a very decentralised country. Its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen. The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hanover, and Nuremberg.

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.[13] During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights.

In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified (except Switzerland and Austria) into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American, British, and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone. About a quarter of Germany's pre-war territory was annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union, leading to the expulsion of Germans. Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.[14]

Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. It is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a highly developed country with a very high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education.

The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has continuously been the home of influential and successful artists, philosophers, writers, musicians, film people, sportspeople, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, and inventors. Germany has many World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world.

Etymology

The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[15] It is possibly of Celtic origin (cf. Old Irish gair = "neighbour").[16] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (compare Dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[17]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jeureuman
Адыгэбзэ: Джэрмэн
адыгабзэ: Германие
Afrikaans: Duitsland
Akan: Germany
Alemannisch: Deutschland
አማርኛ: ጀርመን
Ænglisc: Þēodscland
Аҧсшәа: Германиа
العربية: ألمانيا
aragonés: Alemanya
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܓܪܡܢ
armãneashti: Ghermãnia
arpetan: Alemagnes
asturianu: Alemaña
Avañe'ẽ: Alemáña
авар: Герман
Aymar aru: Alimaña
azərbaycanca: Almaniya
تۆرکجه: آلمان
bamanankan: Alimaɲi
বাংলা: জার্মানি
Bân-lâm-gú: Tek-kok
Basa Banyumasan: Jerman
башҡортса: Германия
беларуская: Германія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нямеччына
भोजपुरी: जर्मनी
Bikol Central: Alemanya
Bislama: Jemani
български: Германия
Boarisch: Deitschland
བོད་ཡིག: འཇར་མན།
bosanski: Njemačka
brezhoneg: Alamagn
буряад: Германи
català: Alemanya
Чӑвашла: Германи
Cebuano: Alemanya
čeština: Německo
Chamoru: Alemaña
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Alemania
Chi-Chewa: Germany
chiShona: Germany
chiTumbuka: Germany
corsu: Germania
Cymraeg: Yr Almaen
dansk: Tyskland
davvisámegiella: Duiska
Deitsch: Deitschland
Deutsch: Deutschland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަރުމަނުވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Nimska
डोटेली: जर्मनी
ཇོང་ཁ: ཇཱར་མ་ནི
eesti: Saksamaa
Ελληνικά: Γερμανία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Germâgna
español: Alemania
Esperanto: Germanio
estremeñu: Alemaña
euskara: Alemania
eʋegbe: Germany
فارسی: آلمان
Fiji Hindi: Germany
føroyskt: Týskland
français: Allemagne
Frysk: Dútslân
Fulfulde: Almaanya
furlan: Gjermanie
Gaeilge: An Ghearmáin
Gagauz: Germaniya
Gàidhlig: A' Ghearmailt
galego: Alemaña
ГӀалгӀай: Германи
贛語: 德國
Gĩkũyũ: Njĩrĩmani
گیلکی: آلمان
ગુજરાતી: જર્મની
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जर्मनी
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tet-koet
한국어: 독일
Hausa: Jamus
Hawaiʻi: Kelemānia
հայերեն: Գերմանիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Գերմանիա
हिन्दी: जर्मनी
hornjoserbsce: Němska
hrvatski: Njemačka
Igbo: Jémanị
Ilokano: Alemania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জার্মানি
Bahasa Indonesia: Jerman
interlingua: Germania
Interlingue: Germania
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔮᒪᓂ
Ирон: Герман
isiXhosa: IJamani
isiZulu: IJalimani
íslenska: Þýskaland
italiano: Germania
עברית: גרמניה
Jawa: Jerman
Kabɩyɛ: Caama
kalaallisut: Tyskit Nunaat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜರ್ಮನಿ
Kapampangan: Alemanya
къарачай-малкъар: Германия
ქართული: გერმანია
kaszëbsczi: Miemieckô
қазақша: Германия
kernowek: Almayn
Kinyarwanda: Ubudage
Kirundi: Ubudage
Kiswahili: Ujerumani
Kongo: Alemanyi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Almay
kurdî: Almanya
Кыргызча: Германия
Ladino: Almania
لۊری شومالی: آلمان
latgaļu: Vuoceja
Latina: Germania
latviešu: Vācija
Lëtzebuergesch: Däitschland
лезги: Германия
lietuvių: Vokietija
Ligure: Germania
Limburgs: Duitsland
lingála: Alémani
Lingua Franca Nova: Deutxland
Livvinkarjala: Germuanii
la .lojban.: dotygu'e
Luganda: Girimane
lumbaart: Germania
मैथिली: जर्मनी
македонски: Германија
Malagasy: Alemaina
മലയാളം: ജർമ്മനി
Malti: Ġermanja
Māori: Tiamana
मराठी: जर्मनी
მარგალური: გერმანია
مصرى: المانيا
مازِرونی: آلمان
Bahasa Melayu: Jerman
Minangkabau: Jerman
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dáik-guók
Mirandés: Almanha
монгол: Герман
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျာမနီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Alemania
Dorerin Naoero: Djermani
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jamani
Nederlands: Duitsland
Nedersaksies: Duutslaand
नेपाली: जर्मनी
नेपाल भाषा: जर्मनी
日本語: ドイツ
Napulitano: Germania
нохчийн: Германи
Nordfriisk: Tjüschlönj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Doichland
norsk: Tyskland
norsk nynorsk: Tyskland
Nouormand: Allemangne
Novial: Germania
occitan: Alemanha
олык марий: Немыч Эл
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜର୍ମାନୀ
Oromoo: Jarmanii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Germaniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਰਮਨੀ
पालि: जर्मनी
Pälzisch: Deutschland
Pangasinan: Alemanya
پنجابی: جرمنی
Papiamentu: Alemania
پښتو: المان
Patois: Joermani
Перем Коми: Немечму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាល្លឺម៉ង់
Picard: Alemanne
Piemontèis: Almagna
Tok Pisin: Siamani
Plattdüütsch: Düütschland
polski: Niemcy
Ποντιακά: Γερμανία
português: Alemanha
Qaraqalpaqsha: Germaniya
qırımtatarca: Almaniya
reo tahiti: Heremani
Ripoarisch: Dütschland
română: Germania
romani čhib: Jermaniya
rumantsch: Germania
Runa Simi: Alimanya
русиньскый: Нїмецько
русский: Германия
саха тыла: Германия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱟᱨᱢᱟᱱᱤ
Gagana Samoa: Siamani
संस्कृतम्: शर्मण्यदेशः
sardu: Germania
Scots: Germany
Seeltersk: Düütsklound
Sesotho: Jeremane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Jeremane
shqip: Gjermania
sicilianu: Girmania
සිංහල: ජර්මනිය
Simple English: Germany
سنڌي: جرمني
SiSwati: IJalimane
slovenčina: Nemecko
slovenščina: Nemčija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Нѣмьци
ślůnski: Mjymcy
Soomaaliga: Jarmalka
کوردی: ئەڵمانیا
Sranantongo: Doysrikondre
српски / srpski: Њемачка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Njemačka
Sunda: Jérman
suomi: Saksa
svenska: Tyskland
Tagalog: Alemanya
தமிழ்: ஜெர்மனி
Taqbaylit: Lalman
tarandíne: Germanie
татарча/tatarça: Алмания
తెలుగు: జర్మనీ
tetun: Alemaña
ትግርኛ: ጀርመን
тоҷикӣ: Олмон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏛᏥ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ma'evé'ho'éno
ತುಳು: ಜರ್ಮನಿ
Türkçe: Almanya
Türkmençe: Germaniýa
Twi: Gyaaman
тыва дыл: Германия
удмурт: Германия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Jerman
українська: Німеччина
اردو: جرمنی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گېرمانىيە
Vahcuengh: Dwzgoz
vèneto: Germania
vepsän kel’: Saksanma
Tiếng Việt: Đức
Volapük: Deutän
Võro: S'aksamaa
walon: Almagne
文言: 德國
West-Vlams: Duutsland
Winaray: Alemanya
Wolof: Almaañ
吴语: 德国
Xitsonga: Jarimani
ייִדיש: דייטשלאנד
Yorùbá: Jẹ́mánì
粵語: 德國
Zazaki: Almanya
Zeêuws: Duutsland
žemaitėška: Vuokītėjė
中文: 德国