German Empire

German Empire
Deutsches Reich
1871–1918
Motto
Gott mit uns
"God with us"
Anthem
Germany on the eve of World War I
States of the German Empire ( Prussia shown in blue)
Capital Berlin
52°31′N 13°24′E / 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517; 13.400
Languages Official:
German
Religion Whitaker's data for 1890 [1]
Majority:
62.8% Protestant ( Lutheran, Reformed, Prussian United)
Government Federal constitutional monarchy
(until October 1918)
Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
(October 1918 to November 1918)
Emperor
 •  1871–1888 Wilhelm I
 •  1888 Frederick III
 •  1888–1918 Wilhelm II
Chancellor
 •  1871–1890 Otto von Bismarck (first)
 •  1918 Max von Baden (last)
Legislature Reichstag
 •  Federal Council Bundesrat
Historical era New Imperialism/ First World War
 •  Unification 18 January 1871
 •  Constitution adopted 16 April 1871
 •  First World War 28 July 1914
 •  German Revolution 3 November 1918
 •  Armistice declared 11 November 1918
 •  Abdication of Wilhelm II [2] 28 November 1918
 •  Treaty of Versailles 28 June 1919
Area
 •  1900 540,857.54 km2 (208,826.26 sq mi)
Population
 •  1871 est. 40,050,792 
 •  1900 est. 52,279,915 
     Density 97/km2 (250/sq mi)
 •  1910 est. 64,925,993 
Currency Vereinsthaler,
South German gulden, Bremen thaler,
Hamburg mark,
French franc,
(until 1873, together)
German gold mark,
(1873–1914)
Papiermark
(1914–1918)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
North German Confederation
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Weimar Republic
Second Polish Republic
Saar Basin
Free City of Danzig
Republic of Lithuania
First Czechoslovak Republic
Today part of   Germany
  Poland
  France
  Denmark
  Russia
  Belgium
  Lithuania
Area and population not including colonial possessions
Area source: [3] Population source: [4][ not in citation given]

The German Empire ( German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich) [5] [6] [7] [8] was the German nation state [9] that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. Berlin became its capital with the Berlin Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor. As these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The state was founded with the notable exclusion of Austria and, as such, represented the so-called Lesser German solution (Kleindeutsche Lösung).

The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, most of them ruled by royal families. They included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of several kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of Germany's population and territory, thus remaining a powerhouse with the major say in imperial affairs. Its influence also helped define modern German culture.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871 Germany had a population of 41 million people; by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. [10] During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. [11] By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second largest in the world, behind only the United States. [12]

Until 1879, Otto von Bismarck's tenure was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the left-over territory that was yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones. [13] As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers, especially the British Empire.

Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly developing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. [14] In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex, shifting, and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated. This period was marked by various actors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were often perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882. It also retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally joined.

In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria-Hungary and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, but it failed because of the use of a trans-Atlantic convoy system. However, the declaration, along with the Zimmermann Telegram, did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution.

The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, as they gambled on one last offensive in spring 1918 before the Americans could arrive in force, using large numbers of troops, aeroplanes and artillery withdrawn from the Eastern Front. This offensive failed and by October the German armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system. After at first attempting to retain control, causing massive uprisings, the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of the Emperor and all other ruling monarchs. This left a post-war federal republic to manage a devastated and unsatisfied populace.

Background

Otto von Bismarck, the visionary statesman who unified Germany with the help of his skillful political moves and the exploitation of encountered opportunities

The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris. [15]

German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states; to do so meant unification of the German states and the exclusion of Prussia's main German rival, Austria, from the subsequent German empire. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second war of Schleswig against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71.

The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany (aside from Austria) in the four states south of the Main and during November 1870 they joined the North German Confederation by treaty. [16]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Duitse Keiserryk
aragonés: Imperio alemán
asturianu: Imperiu alemán
azərbaycanca: Almaniya İmperiyası
Bân-lâm-gú: Tek-ì-chì Tè-kok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нямецкая імпэрыя
español: Imperio alemán
français: Empire allemand
한국어: 독일 제국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekaisaran Jerman
italiano: Impero tedesco
لۊری شومالی: ئمپئراتوٙری آلمان
lumbaart: Imperi todesch
македонски: Германско Царство
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Jerman
Nederlands: Duitse Keizerrijk
日本語: ドイツ帝国
Nordfriisk: Sjiisk Keiserrik
norsk nynorsk: Det tyske keisardømet
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Germaniya imperiyasi
پنجابی: جرمن سلطنت
Papiamentu: Imperio Alemán
português: Império Alemão
română: Imperiul German
Simple English: German Empire
slovenščina: Nemško cesarstvo
српски / srpski: Немачко царство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Njemačko Carstvo
татарча/tatarça: Алман империясе
Türkmençe: German imperiýasy
українська: Німецька імперія
vepsän kel’: Germanijan imperii
Tiếng Việt: Đế quốc Đức