Georgia (country)


საქართველო (Georgian)
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala Ertobashia
(English: "Strength is in Unity")
(English: "Freedom")
Areas under Georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
Areas under Georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
Location of Georgia
and largest city
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717; 44.783
Official languagesGeorgian (nationwide)
Abkhazian (Abkhazian AR)[1][2]
Ethnic groups
86.8% Georgians
  6.2% Azerbaijanis
  4.5% Armenians
  2.8% other
~80% Christianity (Georgian Orthodox Church)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Salome Zurabishvili
Archil Talakvadze
Giorgi Gakharia
Establishment history
• Colchis and Iberia
13th c. BC – 580 AD

12 September 1801

26 May 1918
25 February 1921
• Independence from the Soviet Union

9 April 1991
25 December 1991
24 August 1995
• Total
69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)
• 2019 estimate
3,993,680[a][3] (130th)
• 2014 census
• Density
53.5/km2 (138.6/sq mi) (137th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$46.055 billion[5] (112th)
• Per capita
$12,409[5] (101st)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$17.836 billion[5] (118st)
• Per capita
$4,285[6] (107th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.9[7]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.786[8]
high · 70th
CurrencyGeorgian lari (₾) (GEL)
Time zoneUTC+4 (GET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+995
ISO 3166 codeGE
  1. ^ Data not including occupied territories.

Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, translit.: sakartvelo, IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] (About this soundlisten)), known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს რესპუბლიკა, translit.: sakartvelos resp'ublik'a) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary parliamentary republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia. The Georgians officially adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The Georgian Orthodox Church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. The unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire and successive dynasties of Iran. In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion through the course of the 19th century.

During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation that, in 1922, would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the Germans. After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956.

By the 1980s, an independence movement was established and grew, leading to Georgia's secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; aimed at NATO and European integration, it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms. This brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia.

Georgia is a developing country and ranks 70th on the Human Development Index. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation.[10]


"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map

"Georgia" probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians,[11] while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός ("tiller of the land"). As Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān ("wolf"[12]) as the root of the word.[13] Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was later adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages.[13][14] This term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, which was referred to as Gorgan ("land of the wolves"[15]).[13]

The native name is Sakartvelo (საქართველო; "land of Kartvelians"), derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, and in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi (ქართველები, i.e. "Kartvelians").

The medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times.[13] The name Sakartvelo (საქართველო) consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i (ქართველ-ი), specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire.[16] Ancient Greeks (Strabo, Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.) and Romans (Titus Livius, Tacitus, etc.) referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians (Iberoi in some Greek sources).[17] The Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym.[18]

Today the full, official name of the country is "Georgia", as specified in the official English version of the Georgian constitution which reads "Georgia shall be the name of the State of Georgia."[19] Before the 1995 constitution came into force the country's name was the Republic of Georgia.

Other Languages
Acèh: Georgia
Адыгэбзэ: Хъырцей
адыгабзэ: Хъырцые
Afrikaans: Georgië
Alemannisch: Georgien
አማርኛ: ጂዮርጂያ
Ænglisc: Georgia (land)
Аҧсшәа: Қырҭтәыла
العربية: جورجيا
aragonés: Cheorchia
armãneashti: Georgia
asturianu: Xeorxa
Avañe'ẽ: Georgia
авар: Хъизихъ
Aymar aru: Kiyorxiya
azərbaycanca: Gürcüstan
تۆرکجه: گورجیستان
Bali: Géorgia
Banjar: Jorjiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Gruzia
башҡортса: Грузия
беларуская: Грузія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грузія
Bikol Central: Georgia (nasyon)
български: Грузия
Boarisch: Georgien
bosanski: Gruzija
brezhoneg: Jorjia
буряад: Гүржи
català: Geòrgia
Чӑвашла: Грузи
Cebuano: Geyorgya
čeština: Gruzie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Georgia
chiShona: Georgia
chiTumbuka: Georgia
corsu: Georgia
Cymraeg: Georgia
dansk: Georgien
davvisámegiella: Georgia
Deutsch: Georgien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖޯޖިޔާ (ޤައުމު)
dolnoserbski: Georgiska
डोटेली: जर्जिया
ཇོང་ཁ: ཇཽ་ཇཱ
eesti: Gruusia
Ελληνικά: Γεωργία
español: Georgia
Esperanto: Kartvelio
estremeñu: Geólgia
euskara: Georgia
eʋegbe: Georgia
فارسی: گرجستان
Fiji Hindi: Georgia
føroyskt: Georgia (land)
français: Géorgie (pays)
Frysk: Georgje
Fulfulde: Jorjiya
Gaeilge: An tSeoirsia
Gagauz: Gürcüstan
Gàidhlig: A' Chairtbheil
galego: Xeorxia
ГӀалгӀай: Гуржехье
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌲𐌴𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जॉर्जिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Gruzia
Hausa: Georgia
Hawaiʻi: Keokia
հայերեն: Վրաստան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Վրաստան
hornjoserbsce: Georgiska
hrvatski: Gruzija
Ido: Gruzia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জর্জিয়া (রাষ্ট্র)
Bahasa Indonesia: Georgia
interlingua: Georgia (pais)
Interlingue: Georgia
íslenska: Georgía
italiano: Georgia
עברית: גאורגיה
Jawa: Géorgia
kalaallisut: Georgia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಾರ್ಜಿಯ
Kapampangan: Georgya
къарачай-малкъар: Гюрджю
ქართული: საქართველო
kaszëbsczi: Grëzóńskô
қазақша: Грузия
kernowek: Pow Grouzi
Kinyarwanda: Geworugiya
Kiswahili: Georgia
коми: Грузия
Kongo: Georgia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jeoji
kurdî: Gurcistan
Кыргызча: Грузия
кырык мары: Грузи
لۊری شومالی: گورجستان
latgaļu: Gruzeja
Latina: Georgia
latviešu: Gruzija
Lëtzebuergesch: Georgien
лезги: Гуржистан
lietuvių: Gruzija
Ligure: Giörgia
Limburgs: Georgië
lingála: Zolozi
Lingua Franca Nova: Sacartvelo
Livvinkarjala: Gruuzii
lumbaart: Georgia
magyar: Grúzia
मैथिली: जर्जिया
македонски: Грузија
Malagasy: Jeorjia
Malti: Ġeorġja
Māori: Hōria
मराठी: जॉर्जिया
მარგალური: საქორთუო
مصرى: جيورجيا
مازِرونی: گرجستون
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Georgia
Minangkabau: Georgia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gruzia
мокшень: Грузие
монгол: Гүрж
Dorerin Naoero: Djiordjiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Georgia
Nederlands: Georgië
Nedersaksies: Georgië
नेपाल भाषा: जर्जिया
Napulitano: Georgia
нохчийн: Гуьржийчоь
Nordfriisk: Georgien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jorja
norsk: Georgia
norsk nynorsk: Georgia
Novial: Georgia
олык марий: Грузий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜର୍ଜିଆ
Oromoo: Ji'oorjiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gruziya
Pangasinan: Georgia
پنجابی: جارجیا
Papiamentu: Georgia
پښتو: ګرجستان
Patois: Jaajia
Piemontèis: Geòrgia
Tok Pisin: Georgia
Plattdüütsch: Georgien
polski: Gruzja
Ποντιακά: Γρουζία
português: Geórgia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gruziya
qırımtatarca: Gürcistan
română: Georgia
Runa Simi: Kartulsuyu
русиньскый: Ґрузія
русский: Грузия
саха тыла: Грузия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱚᱨᱡᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Siaosia (Atunuu)
संस्कृतम्: जार्जिया (देशः)
sardu: Georgia
Seeltersk: Georgien
shqip: Gjeorgjia
sicilianu: Giorgia
Simple English: Georgia (country)
سنڌي: جارجيا
SiSwati: IJojiya
slovenčina: Gruzínsko
slovenščina: Gruzija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Гєѡргїꙗ
ślůnski: Gruzyjo
Soomaaliga: Joorjiya (wadan)
کوردی: گورجستان
српски / srpski: Грузија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gruzija
Sunda: Géorgia
suomi: Georgia
svenska: Georgien
Taqbaylit: Jurjya
татарча/tatarça: Гөрҗистан
tetun: Jeórjia
тоҷикӣ: Гурҷистон
Türkçe: Gürcistan
Türkmençe: Gürjüstan
удмурт: Грузия
українська: Грузія
اردو: جارجیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گرۇزىيە
Vahcuengh: Gruzia
vèneto: Zorzania
vepsän kel’: Gruzii
Tiếng Việt: Gruzia
Volapük: Grusiyän
Võro: Gruusia
文言: 格魯吉亞
West-Vlams: Georgië
Wolof: Jeoorji
吴语: 格鲁吉亚
Xitsonga: Georgia
ייִדיש: גרוזיע
Yorùbá: Georgia
粵語: 格魯吉亞
Zazaki: Gurcıstan
Zeêuws: Georhië
žemaitėška: Grozėjė
中文: 格鲁吉亚
kriyòl gwiyannen: Jéyòrji (péyi)
Sakizaya: Georgia