Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia
State of Georgia
Nickname(s): 
Peach State, Empire State of the South
Motto(s): 
"Wisdom, Justice, Moderation"
Anthem: "Georgia on My Mind"
Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted
Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of Georgia
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 2, 1788 (4th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Atlanta
Largest metroMetro Atlanta
Government
 • GovernorBrian Kemp (R)
 • Lieutenant governorGeoff Duncan (R)
LegislatureGeorgia General Assembly
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. senatorsJohnny Isakson (R)
David Perdue (R)
U.S. House delegation9 Republicans
5 Democrats (list)
Area
 • Total59,425 sq mi (153,909 km2)
 • Land57,906 sq mi (149,976 km2)
 • Water1,519 sq mi (3,933 km2)  2.6%
Area rank24th
Dimensions
 • Length298 mi (480 km)
 • Width230 mi (370 km)
Elevation
600 ft (180 m)
Highest elevation4,784 ft (1,458 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[1])
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Total10,519,475 (est. 2,018)
 • Rank8th
 • Density165/sq mi (65.4/km2)
 • Density rank18th
 • Median household income
$56,183[3]
 • Income rank
33rd
Demonym(s)Georgian
Language
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageEnglish
Spanish (7.42%)
Other (2.82%)
Time zoneUTC-05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
GA
ISO 3166 codeUS-GA
www.georgia.gov

Georgia (ə/) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

Founded in 1733 as a British colony, Georgia was the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established.[4] Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Colony of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. On January 2, 1788, Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution.[5] From 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to form the Mississippi Territory, which later was admitted as the U.S. states of Alabama and Mississippi. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the original seven Confederate States.[5] Following the Civil War, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870.[5] In the post-Reconstruction era, Georgia's economy was transformed as a group of prominent politicians, businessmen, and journalists, led by Henry W. Grady, espoused the "New South" philosophy of sectional reconciliation, industrialization, and white supremacy.[6] During the 20th century, several Georgians, most notably Martin Luther King, Jr., were prominent leaders during the civil rights movement.[5] Since 1945, Georgia has seen substantial population growth as part of the broader Sun Belt phenomenon. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing.[7]

Georgia is defined by a diversity of landscapes, flora, and fauna. The state's northernmost regions include the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the larger Appalachian Mountain system. The Piedmont plateau extends from the foothills of the Blue Ridge south to the Fall Line, an escarpment to the coastal plain defining the state's southern region. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet (1,458 m) above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. With the exception of some high-altitude areas in the Blue Ridge, the entirety of the state has a humid subtropical climate. Of the states entirely east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area.[8]

History

Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733.[9] The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by (and named for) King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish in 1742, during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king.[10]

Georgia was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution.

The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778,[11] and was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788.

In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861. The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that U.S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees.

In early 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy (with secessionists having a slight majority of delegates)[12] and became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service, roughly one of every five who served.[13] In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union.

With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering.[14] In 1908, the state established a white primary; with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from politics.[15] They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American dropped thereafter to 28%, primarily due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration.[16] According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States (1877-1950), Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South. The overwhelming number of victims were black and male.[17] Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s tomb, located on the grounds of the King Center

An Atlanta-born Baptist minister who was part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement. King joined with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South.

On 5 February 1958, during a training mission flown by a B-47, a Mark 15 nuclear bomb, also known as the Tybee Bomb, was lost off the coast of Tybee Island near Savannah. The bomb was thought by the Department of Energy to lie buried in silt at the bottom of Wassaw Sound.[18]

By the 1960s, the proportion of African Americans in Georgia had declined to 28% of the state's population, after waves of migration to the North and some in-migration by whites.[19] With their voting power diminished, it took some years for African Americans to win a state-wide office. Julian Bond, a noted civil rights leader, was elected to the state House in 1965, and served multiple terms there and in the state senate.

Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. testified before Congress in support of the Civil Rights Act, and Governor Carl Sanders worked with the Kennedy administration to ensure the state's compliance. Ralph McGill, editor and syndicated columnist at the Atlanta Constitution, earned admiration by writing in support of the Civil Rights Movement. In 1970, newly elected Governor Jimmy Carter declared in his inaugural address that the era of racial segregation had ended. In 1972 Georgians elected Andrew Young to Congress as the first African American Congressman since Reconstruction.

In 1980, construction was completed on an expansion of what is now named Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The busiest and most efficient airport in the world, it accommodates over 100 million passengers annually.[20] Employing more than 60,000 people, the airport became a major engine for economic growth.[20] With the advantages of cheap real estate, low taxes, right-to-work laws and a regulatory environment limiting government interference, the Atlanta metropolitan area became a national center of finance, insurance, technology, manufacturing, real estate, logistics, and transportation companies, as well as the film, convention, and trade show businesses. As a testament to the city's growing international profile, in 1990 the International Olympic Committee selected Atlanta as the site of the 1996 Summer Olympics. Taking advantage of Atlanta's status as a transportation hub, in 1991 UPS established its headquarters in a suburb. In 1992, construction finished on Bank of America Plaza, the tallest building in the U.S. outside New York or Chicago.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Georgia
አማርኛ: ጆርጂያ
asturianu: Georgia
azərbaycanca: Corciya
Bân-lâm-gú: Georgia
башҡортса: Джорджия
беларуская: Джорджыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Джорджыя
Bikol Central: Georgia (estado)
Bislama: Georgia
български: Джорджия
Boarisch: Georgia
bosanski: Georgia
brezhoneg: Georgia
буряад: Джорджи
Чӑвашла: Джорджи
Cebuano: Georgia
čeština: Georgie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Georgia (estado)
dansk: Georgia
davvisámegiella: Georgia (oassestáhta)
Deutsch: Georgia
eesti: Georgia
Ελληνικά: Τζόρτζια
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Geòrgia (USA)
Esperanto: Georgio
euskara: Georgia (AEB)
فارسی: جورجیا
føroyskt: Georgia (USA)
Frysk: Georgia
Gagauz: Georgia
Gàidhlig: Georgia (stàit)
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌳𐌴𐌹𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌳𐌹𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Georgia
хальмг: Җорҗия
한국어: 조지아주
հայերեն: Ջորջիա
hornjoserbsce: Georgia
hrvatski: Georgia
Ido: Georgia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জর্জিয়া (রাজ্য)
Bahasa Indonesia: Georgia (negara bagian)
interlingua: Georgia (stato)
Interlingue: Georgia (USA)
Iñupiak: Georgia
Ирон: Джорджи
isiXhosa: IJojiya
עברית: ג'ורג'יה
Kabɩyɛ: Zɔɔrziyaa
ქართული: ჯორჯია
қазақша: Джорджия
kernowek: Jeorji
Kiswahili: Georgia (jimbo)
Kreyòl ayisyen: Djòdji
kurdî: Georgia
Кыргызча: Жоржия
кырык мары: Джорджи
لۊری شومالی: جورجیا
latviešu: Džordžija
Lëtzebuergesch: Georgia
lietuvių: Džordžija
Limburgs: Georgia
Lingua Franca Nova: Georgia
Livvinkarjala: Štuattu Georgii
lumbaart: Georgia (USA)
македонски: Џорџија
მარგალური: ჯორჯია
مازِرونی: جورجیا
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Georgia
монгол: Жоржиа
Dorerin Naoero: Georgia
Nederlands: Georgia (staat)
Nedersaksies: Georgia
नेपाल भाषा: जर्जिया राज्य
нохчийн: Джорджи
Nordfriisk: Georgia
norsk nynorsk: Delstaten Georgia
олык марий: Джорджий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Jorjiya
Papiamentu: Georgia (estado)
Plattdüütsch: Georgia
polski: Georgia
Runa Simi: Georgia suyu
русский: Джорджия
саха тыла: Дьордьия
Seeltersk: Georgia
shqip: Georgia
sicilianu: Georgia (USA)
Simple English: Georgia (U.S. state)
slovenščina: Georgia
ślůnski: Georgia
српски / srpski: Џорџија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Georgia
svenska: Georgia
Taqbaylit: Georgia
татарча/tatarça: Джорджия
తెలుగు: జార్జియా
тоҷикӣ: Ҷорҷия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏣᏥᏱ
Türkçe: Georgia
Türkmençe: Jorjiýa
українська: Джорджія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Giorgiye Shitati
vèneto: Georgia (USA)
Tiếng Việt: Georgia
Volapük: Georgän
文言: 喬治亞州
吴语: 佐治亚州
ייִדיש: דזשארדזשיע
粵語: 佐治亞州
Zazaki: Georgia
Zeêuws: Georgia
žemaitėška: Džuordžėjė
中文: 喬治亞州