George H. W. Bush

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped).jpg
41st President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
Vice PresidentDan Quayle
Preceded byRonald Reagan
Succeeded byBill Clinton
43rd Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byWalter Mondale
Succeeded byDan Quayle
11th Director of Central Intelligence
In office
January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byWilliam Colby
Succeeded byStansfield Turner
2nd Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China
In office
September 26, 1974 – December 7, 1975
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byDavid K. E. Bruce
Succeeded byThomas S. Gates Jr.
Chair of the
Republican National Committee
In office
January 19, 1973 – September 16, 1974
Preceded byBob Dole
Succeeded byMary Smith
10th United States Ambassador to the United Nations
In office
March 1, 1971 – January 18, 1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byCharles Yost
Succeeded byJohn A. Scali
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 7th district
In office
January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1971
Preceded byJohn Dowdy
Succeeded byBill Archer
Personal details
George Herbert Walker Bush

(1924-06-12)June 12, 1924
Milton, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedNovember 30, 2018(2018-11-30) (aged 94)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Resting placeGeorge H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum
Political partyRepublican
Barbara Pierce
(m. 1945; died 2018)
ParentsPrescott Bush (father)
RelativesBush family
EducationYale University (BA)
SignaturePresidential Library
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1942–1945
RankUS Navy O3 infobox.svg Lieutenant
UnitFast Carrier Task Force
Battles/warsWorld War II

George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, Bush also served in the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, and as Director of Central Intelligence. Bush is usually known as George H. W. Bush to distinguish him from his eldest son George W. Bush, who served as U.S. President from 2001 to 2009.

Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, and became one of its youngest aviators. He served until September 1945, and then attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 (in 1964). Bush won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, and was re-elected in 1968. He also ran unsuccessfully for U.S. Senate twice, in 1964 and again in 1970. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, and he became chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and later made him the Director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, but was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan. He was then elected vice president in 1980 and 1984 as Reagan's running mate. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the War on Drugs.

In 1988, Bush defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency; military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf, the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Bush also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise by signing a bill that increased taxes. He lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.

After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities; he often worked alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as the nation's president (following John Adams and John Quincy Adams). After a long battle with vascular Parkinson's disease, Bush died at his home on November 30, 2018. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U.S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019.

Early life and education

George H. W. Bush, c. 1925

George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts[1] on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, who was known as "Pop", and young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake.[2]

Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School, then attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.[3]

World War II

Crewmen of the submarine USS Finback rescue Bush

Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U.S. Navy[4] immediately after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday.[5] He became a naval aviator, taking training for aircraft carrier operations aboard USS Sable.[3][6] After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy.[nb 1]

In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 (VT-51) as the photographic officer.[4] The following year, his squadron was assigned to the USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin".[10] During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II.[4]

Bush in his Grumman TBM Avenger aboard USS San Jacinto in 1944

Bush was promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944, and San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. He piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima[11] on September 2, 1944. His crew included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lt.(jg) William White.[4] His aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush successfully released bombs and scored several hits.[4] With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out;[12] the other man's parachute did not open.[4] Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue.[4] He remained in Finback for the next month and participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors.[13] This experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"[14]

In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions[12] for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to San Jacinto.[4] He was then reassigned to a training wing for torpedo bomber crews at Norfolk Navy Base, Virginia. His final assignment was to the new torpedo squadron VT-153 based at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan. He was honorably discharged from the Navy in September 1945, one month after the surrender of Japan.[15]

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български: Джордж Х. У. Буш
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српски / srpski: Џорџ Х. В. Буш
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ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جورج بۇش
Tiếng Việt: George H. W. Bush
文言: 老布什
粵語: 老布殊