Geography

Physical map of Earth with political borders as of 2016

Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description")[1] is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.[2] The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.[4][5] Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.[6] Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.[7] Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".

Introduction

Geography is a systematic study of the Universe and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment.[8] Because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, health, climate, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns.[9]

Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena (alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latter), to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.[10]

— William Hughes, 1863

Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography.[11]

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, and how organisms, climate, soil, water, and landforms produce and interact.[12] The difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans.[8]

Other Languages
Acèh: Geografi
Адыгэбзэ: Хэкумэтх
Afrikaans: Geografie
Akan: Gyeografi
Alemannisch: Geografie
العربية: جغرافيا
aragonés: Cheografía
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܓܐܘܓܪܦܝܐ
arpetan: G·eografia
অসমীয়া: ভূগোল
asturianu: Xeografía
Avañe'ẽ: Tetãkuaa
Aymar aru: Uraqita
azərbaycanca: Coğrafiya
تۆرکجه: جوغرافیا
বাংলা: ভূগোল
Bân-lâm-gú: Tē-lí
Basa Banyumasan: Geografi
башҡортса: География
беларуская: Геаграфія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Геаграфія
भोजपुरी: भूगोल
Bikol Central: Heograpiya
Bislama: Jiografi
български: География
Boarisch: Geografie
bosanski: Geografija
brezhoneg: Douaroniezh
буряад: Газар зүй
català: Geografia
Чӑвашла: Географи
Cebuano: Heyograpiya
čeština: Geografie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Geografia
chiShona: Taranyika
corsu: Geografia
Cymraeg: Daearyddiaeth
dansk: Geografi
Deutsch: Geographie
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖުޣުރާފީ
dolnoserbski: Geografija
डोटेली: भूगोल
eesti: Geograafia
Ελληνικά: Γεωγραφία
español: Geografía
Esperanto: Geografio
estremeñu: Geografia
euskara: Geografia
فارسی: جغرافیا
Fiji Hindi: Jagha
føroyskt: Landafrøði
français: Géographie
Frysk: Geografy
furlan: Gjeografie
Gàidhlig: Cruinn-eòlas
galego: Xeografía
ГӀалгӀай: Географи
贛語: 地理學
ગુજરાતી: ભૂગોળ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thi-lî-ho̍k
한국어: 지리학
हिन्दी: भूगोल
hornjoserbsce: Geografija
hrvatski: Geografija
Ilokano: Heograpia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভূগোল
Bahasa Indonesia: Geografi
interlingua: Geographia
Interlingue: Geografie
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓄᓇᐅᔪᖅ
isiXhosa: IJografi
íslenska: Landfræði
italiano: Geografia
עברית: גאוגרפיה
Basa Jawa: Géografi
kalaallisut: Nunalerineq
Kapampangan: Geografia
къарачай-малкъар: География
ქართული: გეოგრაფია
kaszëbsczi: Geògrafijô
қазақша: География
kernowek: Dorydhyeth
Kiswahili: Jiografia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jewografi
kurdî: Erdnîgarî
Кыргызча: География
Ladino: Jeografiya
Latina: Geographia
latviešu: Ģeogrāfija
Lëtzebuergesch: Geographie
лезги: География
lietuvių: Geografija
Ligure: Geografia
Limburgs: Geografie
Lingua Franca Nova: Jeografia
Livvinkarjala: Muantiedo
la .lojban.: tutske
Luganda: Essomansi
lumbaart: Geugrafia
मैथिली: भूगोल
македонски: Географија
Malagasy: Jeografia
मराठी: भूगोल
მარგალური: გეოგრაფია
مصرى: جغرافيا
مازِرونی: جوغرافی
Bahasa Melayu: Geografi
Baso Minangkabau: Geografi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dê-lī
Mirandés: Geografie
мокшень: Географие
монгол: Газарзүй
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပထဝီဝင်
Nederlands: Aardrijkskunde
Nedersaksies: Geografie
नेपाली: भूगोल
नेपाल भाषा: भूगोल
日本語: 地理学
Napulitano: Giugrafia
нохчийн: Географи
Nordfriisk: Geografii
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jiiografii
norsk: Geografi
norsk nynorsk: Geografi
Nouormand: Géographie
Novial: Geografia
occitan: Geografia
олык марий: Географий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭୂଗୋଳ
Oromoo: Hawaasa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Geografiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭੂਗੋਲ
पालि: भूगोल
پنجابی: جغرافیہ
Patois: Jaagrafi
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភូមិសាស្ត្រ
Picard: Jografie
Tok Pisin: Save long giraun
Plattdüütsch: Geografie
polski: Geografia
Ποντιακά: Γεωγραφίαν
português: Geografia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Geografiya
română: Geografie
Romani: Phuvipen
rumantsch: Geografia
Runa Simi: Allpa saywachi
русиньскый: Ґеоґрафія
русский: География
саха тыла: География
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱛᱱᱚ
Gagana Samoa: Geography
संस्कृतम्: भूगोलम्
sardu: Geografia
Scots: Geografie
Sesotho sa Leboa: Thutafase
shqip: Gjeografia
sicilianu: Giugrafìa
Simple English: Geography
سنڌي: جاگرافي
SiSwati: Temhlaba
slovenčina: Geografia
slovenščina: Geografija
ślůnski: Geografijo
Soomaaliga: Juqraafi
کوردی: جوگرافیا
српски / srpski: Географија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Geografija
Basa Sunda: Géografi
suomi: Maantiede
svenska: Geografi
Tagalog: Heograpiya
Taqbaylit: Tarakalt
tarandíne: Sciugrafije
татарча/tatarça: География
тоҷикӣ: Ҷуғрофия
Türkçe: Coğrafya
Türkmençe: Geografiýa
тыва дыл: География
українська: Географія
اردو: جغرافیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جۇغراپىيە
vèneto: Giografia
vepsän kel’: Geografii
Tiếng Việt: Địa lý
Volapük: Taledav
Võro: Maatiidüs
文言: 地理學
West-Vlams: Eirdrykskunde
Winaray: Heyograpiya
Wolof: Melosuuf
吴语: 地理學
Xitsonga: Ntivo-mbangu
ייִדיש: געאגראפיע
粵語: 地理
Zazaki: Coğrafya
Zeêuws: Heografie
žemaitėška: Geuograpėjė
中文: 地理学