Geocoding

Geocoding is the computational process of transforming a postal address description to a location on the Earth's surface (spatial representation in numerical coordinates). Reverse geocoding, on the other hand, converts geographic coordinates to a description of a location, usually the name of a place or an addressable location. Geocoding relies on a computer representation of address points, the street / road network, together with postal and administrative boundaries.

Geocoding (verb): The act of transforming an address text into a valid spatial representation.

Geocoder (noun): A piece of software or a (web) service that implements a geocoding process i.e. a set of interrelated components in the form of operations, algorithms, and data sources that work together to produce a spatial representation for descriptive locational references.

Geocode (noun): A spatial representation of a descriptive locational reference.

The geographic coordinates representing locations often vary greatly in positional accuracy. Examples include building centroids, land parcels, street addresses, postal code centroids (e.g. ZIP codes, CEDEX), and Administrative Boundary Centroids.

History

Geocoding — a subset of Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis — has been a subject of interest since the early 1960s.

1960s

In 1960, the first operational GIS — named the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) — was invented by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, who has since been acknowledged as the father of GIS. The CGIS was used to store and analyze data collected for the Canada Land Inventory, which mapped information about agriculture, wildlife, and forestry at a scale of 1:50,000, in order to regulate land capability for rural Canada. However, the CGIS lasted until the 1990s and was never available commercially.

On July 1, 1963, five-digit ZIP codes were introduced nationwide by the United States Post Office Department (USPOD). In 1983, nine-digit ZIP+4 codes were brought about as an extra identifier in more accurately locating addresses.

In 1964, the Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis developed groundbreaking software code — e.g. GRID, and SYMAP — all of which were sources for commercial development of GIS.

In 1967, a team at the Census Bureau — including the mathematician James Corbett [1] and Donald Cooke [2] — invented Dual Independent Map Encoding (DIME) — the first modern vector mapping model — which ciphered address ranges into street network files and incorporated the "percent along" geocoding algorithm. [3] Still in use by platforms such as Google Maps and MapQuest, the "percent along" algorithm denotes where a matched address is located along a reference feature as a percentage of the reference feature's total length. DIME was intended for the use of the United States Census Bureau, and it involved accurately mapping block faces, digitizing nodes representing street intersections, and forming spatial relationships. New Haven, Connecticut was the first city on Earth with a geocodable streets network database.

1980s

In the late 1970s, two main public domain geocoding platforms were in development: GRASS GIS and MOSS. The early 1980s saw the rise of many more commercial vendors of geocoding software, namely Intergraph, ESRI, CARIS, ERDAS, and MapInfo Corporation. These platforms merged the 1960s approach of separating spatial information with the approach of organizing this spatial information into database structures.

In 1986, Mapping Display and Analysis System (MIDAS) became the first desktop geocoding software, designed for the DOS operating system. Geocoding was elevated from the research department into the business world with the acquisition of MIDAS by MapInfo. MapInfo has since been acquired by Pitney Bowes, and has pioneered in merging geocoding with business intelligence; allowing location intelligence to provide solutions for the public and private sectors.

1990s

The end of the 20th century had seen geocoding become more user-oriented, especially via open-source GIS software. Mapping applications and geospatial data had become more accessible over the Internet.

Because the mail-out/mail-back technique was so successful in the 1980 Census, the U.S. Bureau of Census was able to put together a large geospatial database, using interpolated street geocoding. [4] This database — along with the Census’ nationwide coverage of households — allowed for the birth of TIGER ( Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing).

Containing address ranges instead of individual addresses, TIGER has since been implemented in nearly all geocoding software platforms used today. By the end of the 1990 Census, TIGER "contained a latitude/longitude-coordinate for more than 30 million feature intersections and endpoints and nearly 145 million feature ‘shape’ points that defined the more than 42 million feature segments that outlined more than 12 million polygons." [5]

TIGER was the breakthrough for "big data" geospatial solutions.

2000s

The early 2000s saw the rise of Coding Accuracy Support System (CASS) address standardization. The CASS certification is offered to all software vendors and advertising mailers who want the United States Postal Services (USPS) to assess the quality of their address-standardizing software. The annually renewed CASS certification is based on delivery point codes, ZIP codes, and ZIP+4 codes. Adoption of a CASS certified software by software vendors allows them to receive discounts in bulk mailing and shipping costs. They can benefit from increased accuracy and efficiency in those bulk mailings, after having a certified database. In the early 2000s, geocoding platforms were also able to support multiple datasets.

In 2003, geocoding platforms were capable of merging postal codes with street data, updated monthly. This process became known as "conflation".

Beginning in 2005, geocoding platforms included parcel-centroid geocoding. Parcel-centroid geocoding allowed for a lot of precision in geocoding an address. For example, parcel-centroid allowed a geocoder to determine the centroid of a specific building or lot of land. Platforms were now also able to determine the elevation of specific parcels.

2005 also saw the introduction of the Assessor's Parcel Number (APN). A jurisdiction's tax assessor was able to assign this number to parcels of real estate. This allowed for proper identification and record-keeping. An APN is important for geocoding an area which is covered by a gas or oil lease, and indexing property tax information provided to the public.

In 2006, Reverse Geocoding and reverse APN lookup were introduced to geocoding platforms. This involved geocoding a numerical point location — with a longitude and latitude — to a textual, readable address.

2008 and 2009 saw the growth of interactive, user-oriented geocoding platforms — namely MapQuest, Google Maps, Bing Maps, and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). These platforms were made even more accessible to the public with the simultaneous growth of the mobile industry, specifically smartphones.

2010s

This current decade has seen vendors fully supporting geocoding and reverse geocoding globally. Cloud-based geocoding application programming interface (API) and on-premise geocoding has allowed for a greater match rate, greater precision, and greater speed. There is now a popularity in the idea of geocoding being able to influence business decisions. This is the integration between the geocoding process and business intelligence.

The future of geocoding also involves three-dimensional geocoding, indoor geocoding, and multiple language returns for the geocoding platforms.

Other Languages
français: Géocodage
македонски: Геокодирање
Bahasa Melayu: Penggeokodan
Nederlands: Geocode
norsk: Geokoding
polski: Geokodowanie
português: Geocódigo
română: Geocodificare
suomi: Geokoodi
українська: Геокодування
中文: 坐標化