A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" [1]) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce. In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum (or egg)—and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm. In short a gamete is an egg (female gamete) or a sperm (male gamete) This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy, the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell [2] [3]). In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type. The name gamete was introduced by the Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel. Gametes carry half the genetic information of an individual, one ploidy of each type, and are created through meiosis.

Oogenesis is the process of female gamete formation in animals. This process involves meiosis (including meiotic recombination) occurring in the diploid primary oocyte to produce the haploid ovum (gamete). Spermatogenesis is the process of male gamete formation in animals. This process also involves meiosis (including meiotic recombination) occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to produce the haploid spermatozoon (gamete).


In contrast to a gamete, the diploid somatic cells of an individual contain one copy of the chromosome set from the sperm and one copy of the chromosome set from the egg cell; that is, the cells of the offspring have genes expressing characteristics of both the father and the mother. A gamete's chromosomes are not exact duplicates of either of the sets of chromosomes carried in the diploid chromosomes, and often undergo random mutations resulting in modified DNA (and subsequently, new proteins and phenotypes).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Gameet
Alemannisch: Gamet
العربية: جاميت (أحياء)
azərbaycanca: Qamet
বাংলা: গ্যামেট
башҡортса: Гамета
беларуская: Гамета
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гамэта
български: Гамета
bosanski: Gamet
català: Gàmeta
čeština: Pohlavní buňka
dansk: Gamet
Deutsch: Gamet
eesti: Gameet
español: Gameto
Esperanto: Gameto
euskara: Gameto
فارسی: گامت
français: Gamète
Gaeilge: Gaiméit
galego: Gameto
한국어: 단상세포
Հայերեն: Գամետ
hrvatski: Gameta
Ido: Gameto
Bahasa Indonesia: Sel gamet
íslenska: Kynfruma
עברית: תא רבייה
ქართული: გამეტა
қазақша: Гамета
Kreyòl ayisyen: Gamèt
Кыргызча: Гамета
latviešu: Gameta
lietuvių: Gameta
magyar: Ivarsejt
македонски: Гамета
മലയാളം: ഗാമീറ്റ്
Bahasa Melayu: Gamet
Nederlands: Gameet
日本語: 配偶子
norsk nynorsk: Kjønnscelle
occitan: Gameta
polski: Gameta
português: Gâmeta
română: Gamet
русский: Гамета
Scots: Gamete
Simple English: Gamete
slovenčina: Pohlavná bunka
کوردی: گامێت
српски / srpski: Гамет
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gamet
svenska: Könscell
Tagalog: Gameto
தமிழ்: பாலணு
Türkçe: Gamet
українська: Гамета
中文: 配子