Gallipoli Campaign

Gallipoli Campaign
Part of the Middle Eastern theatre of the First World War
G.C. 18 March 1915 Gallipoli Campaign Article.jpg
A collection of photographs from the campaign. From top and left to right: Ottoman commanders including Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (fourth from left); Allied warships; the view down to Anzac Cove; Ottoman soldiers in a trench; and Allied positions.
Date17 February 1915 – 9 January 1916
(10 months, 3 weeks and 2 days)
Location
ResultOttoman victory
Belligerents

 British Empire

 France
Supported by:
 Russia

 Ottoman Empire
Supported by:

 Germany[1][2]
 Austria-Hungary[3]
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Mediterranean Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Labour Corps[5]
Maltese Labour Corps[5]
Oriental Expeditionary Corps
Ottoman Empire 5th Army
German Empire Military Mission[6]
Strength

5 divisions (initial)
15 divisions (final)
Total: 489,000[7]

  • 345,000 British (including Indians, Irish and Newfoundlanders)
  • 79,000 French[8]
  • c. 50,000 Australians
  • c. 15,000 New Zealanders

Supported by

c. 2,000 civilian labourers[5]

6 divisions (initial)
16 divisions (final)
Total: 315,500[8][9]

Casualties and losses

United Kingdom British Empire:
160,790 battle casualties
3,778+ died of disease
90,000 evacuated sick[7]
French Third Republic French Third Republic:
27,169 battle casualties
deaths from disease: unknown
20,000 evacuated sick


Total: 302,000 casualties

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire:
56,643 killed
97,007 wounded or injured
11,178 missing or PoW
64,440 evacuated sick[11]
21,000 died of disease[7]


Total: 250,000 casualties

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a long unsuccessful campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey). The Allied powers Britain and France, sought to greatly weaken the Ottoman Empire by capturing control of the straits that provided a supply route to their ally Russia. The invaders launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula. They hoped to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople.[12] The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn. It was a costly and humiliating defeat for the Allies and for the sponsors, especially Winston Churchill.

The campaign was the only major Ottoman victory of the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation's history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. Arabs formed a substantial force in the Gallipoli Peninsula being part of the Seventy Second and Seventy Seventh regiments.[13] According to several sources Arabs made up two thirds of the 19th division under Colonel Mustafa Kemal.[14][15] The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later, with Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk) as President, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli. The campaign is often considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national consciousness; 25 April, the anniversary of the landings, is known as "ANZAC Day", the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in the two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).[16][17][18]

Background

On 27 October 1914, two formerly German warships, now the Ottoman Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli, still under German officers, conducted the Black Sea Raid, in which they bombarded the Russian port of Odessa and sank several ships.[19] In early November the various powers declared war. Turkey opened the Caucasus Campaign against Russia. The British briefly bombarded forts in Gallipoli, began the Mesopotamian Campaign, and studied the possibility of forcing the Dardanelles.

Allied strategy and the Dardanelles

Sea access to Russia through the Dardanelles (in yellow)

Before the Dardanelles operation was conceived, the British had planned to conduct an amphibious invasion near Alexandretta on the Mediterranean, an idea originally presented by Boghos Nubar in 1914.[20] This plan was developed by the Secretary of State for War, Field Marshal Earl Kitchener to sever the capital from Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Alexandretta was an area with a Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Empire's railway network—its capture would have cut the empire in two. Vice Admiral Sir Richard Peirse, East Indies Station, ordered Captain Frank Larkin of HMS Doris to Alexandretta on 13 December 1914. At the same time, in the same area, the Russian cruiser Askold and the French cruiser were performing similar operations. Kitchener was working on the plan as late as March 1915. This plan was also the beginning of Britain's successful effort to start an Arab Revolt. The Alexandretta landing was abandoned because militarily it would have required more resources than France could allocate and politically France did not want the British operating in their sphere of influence, a position to which Britain had agreed in 1912.[21]

By late 1914 the war on the Western Front had become a stalemate; the Franco-British counter-offensive of the First Battle of the Marne had ended and the British had suffered many casualties in the First Battle of Ypres in Flanders. The war of manoeuvre ended and trench warfare began.[22] The German Empire and Austria-Hungary closed the overland trade routes between Britain and France in the west and Russia in the east. The White Sea in the arctic north and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Far East were icebound in winter and distant from the Eastern Front, the Baltic Sea was blockaded by the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) and the entrance to the Black Sea through the Dardanelles was controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[23] While the empire remained neutral supplies could still be sent to Russia through the Dardanelles but prior to the Ottoman entry into the war the straits had been closed and in November they began to mine the waterway.[24][25]

French Minister of Justice Aristide Briand's proposal in November to attack the Ottoman Empire was rejected and an attempt by the British to pay the Ottomans to join the Allied side also failed.[26] Later that month, Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed a naval attack on the Dardanelles, based in part on erroneous reports of Ottoman troop strength. Churchill wanted to use a large number of obsolete battleships, which could not operate against the German High Seas Fleet, in a Dardanelles operation, with a small occupation force provided by the army. It was hoped that an attack on the Ottomans would also draw Bulgaria and Greece (both formerly ruled by the Ottomans) into the war on the Allied side.[27] On 2 January 1915, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia appealed successfully to Britain for assistance against the Ottomans, who were conducting an offensive in the Caucasus.[28] Planning began for a naval demonstration in the Dardanelles to divert troops from the Caucasian theatre of operations.[29]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Галіпальская кампанія
Bahasa Indonesia: Kampanye Gallipoli
latviešu: Galipoli kauja
Lëtzebuergesch: Schluecht vu Gallipoli
Nederlands: Slag om Gallipoli
norsk nynorsk: Gallipolifelttoget
Simple English: Gallipoli Campaign
slovenčina: Bitka o Gallipoli
slovenščina: Bitka za Galipoli
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Galipoljska operacija
татарча/tatarça: Çanaqqala bäreleşe
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چاناق قەلئە ئۇرۇشى
Tiếng Việt: Chiến dịch Gallipoli