History of gagaku
Gagaku, the oldest form of classical music in Japan, was introduced into Japan with Buddhism from China. In 589, Japanese official diplomatic delegations were sent to China (during the Sui dynasty) to learn Chinese culture, including Chinese court music, Gagaku. By the 7th century, the koto (a zither) and the biwa (a short-necked lute) had been introduced into Japan from China. Various instruments, including these two, were the earliest used to play gagaku.
Even though the Japanese use the same term 雅楽 (yǎyuè in Mandarin Chinese, ngahngohk in Cantonese), the form of music imported from China was primarily banquet music engaku rather than the ceremonial music of the Chinese yǎyuè. The importation of music peaked during the Tang Dynasty, and these pieces are called Tōgaku (Tang music). Gagaku pieces earlier than Tang Dynasty are called kogaku (ancient music), while those from after the Tang Dynasty are called shingaku (new music). The term gagaku itself was first recorded in 701, when the first imperial academy of music Gagakuryō was established.
Music from the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, which is pronounced Koma in Japanese, had been recorded as early as 453 AD, and komagaku was eventually used as a term that covered all Korean pieces. Komagaku and Tōgaku became established in southern Japan during the Nara period (710-794). In 736, music from India and Indochina were also introduced and these are called Tenjikugaku and Rinyūgaku respectively. During the Heian period (794-1185), in the first half of the ninth century, gagaku music was reorganized and settled into the basic divisions of "music of the left" (primarily Tōgaku, now including Chinese, Indian and Japanese pieces) and "music of the right" (Komagaku, now music of Korea and Manchuria).
Gagaku reached a peak of popularity in the tenth century at court, but declined in the Kamakura period (1185-1333) when the power of the court aristocracy became diminished while that of the samurai rose. Gagaku was played by musicians who belonged to hereditary guilds. During the Kamakura period, military rule was imposed and gagaku was performed in the homes of the aristocracy, but rarely at court. At this time, there were three guilds, based in Osaka, Nara and Kyoto.
Because of the Ōnin War, a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period, gagaku ensembles ceased to perform in Kyoto for about 100 years. In the Edo period, the Tokugawa government revived and reorganized the court-style ensembles, the direct ancestors of the present gagaku ensembles.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, musicians from all three guilds came to the capital and their descendants make up most of the current Tokyo Imperial Palace Music Department. By that time, the present ensemble composition had been established, consisting of three wind instruments – hichiriki, ryūteki, and shō (bamboo mouth organ used to provide harmony) – and three percussion instruments – kakko (small drum), shōko (metal percussion), and taiko (drum) or dadaiko (large drum), supplemented by gakubiwa.
Gagaku also accompanies classical dance performances called bugaku (舞楽). It may be used in religious ceremonies in some Buddhist temples.
In 1955, the Japanese government recognized gagaku and bugaku as important National Treasures.
Today, gagaku is performed in two ways:
kangen, concert music for winds, strings and percussion,
- as bugaku, or dance music, for which the stringed instruments are omitted.
Komagaku survives only as bugaku.
Contemporary gagaku ensembles, such as
Reigakusha (伶楽舎), perform contemporary compositions for gagaku instruments. This subgenre of contemporary works for gagaku instruments, which began in the 1960s, is called reigaku (伶楽). Twentieth-century composers such as Tōru Takemitsu have composed works for gagaku ensembles, as well as individual gagaku instruments.