Nankai Electric Railway Company ownership
The franchise's original name was Nankai when it joined the
Japanese Baseball League (JBL) in 1938, with the name originating with the
Nankai Electric Railway Co., which owned the team at the time. The team's name was changed to Kinki Nippon
 in mid-1944 as it received partial sponsorship from
Kinki Nippon Railway. After the 1945 hiatus in the JBL due to the
Pacific War, in 1946 the team's name was changed to Kinki Great Ring
 and the team won the JBL championship. Throughout the name changes the club underwent between 1938 and 1946,
Nankai Electric Railway Co. (in one form or another) maintained ownership of the franchise.
In mid-1947, Nankai settled upon its current moniker. The Nankai Hawks (南海ホークス). Under player-manager
Kazuto Tsuruoka (known as Kazuto Yamamoto from 1946–1958)
 they became one of the most successful franchises through the first two decades of the
Pacific League's existence, taking two Japan Series championships and 10 Pacific League pennants. (Kazuto managed the team from 1946–1968, becoming the full-time manager after his retirement as a player in 1952.)
In 1964, the Hawks team sent pitching prospect
Masanori Murakami and two other young players to the
San Francisco Giants
Fresno as a baseball "exchange student". On September 1 of that year Murakami became the first Japanese player to play in
Major League Baseball
 when he appeared on the mound for the
San Francisco Giants. Disputes over the rights to his contract eventually led to the 1967 United States – Japanese Player Contract Agreement. Murakami returned to the Hawks in 1966, playing for them through 1974. He contributed to the team's league championship in 1973.
The team fell on hard times between 1978 and 1988, finishing no better than 4th place out of the 6 teams in the Pacific League in any year in the period. The team witnessed its fan base diminish as a result of the prolonged period of poor play, with attendance dropping and the club dealing with reduced profits.
The change in the club's financial performance led Nankai Electric Railway to question the value of maintaining ownership, even after considering the value the team represented as an advertising tool. The company's board of directors and union leadership put pressure on Den Kawakatsu, then president of Nankai Railway and owner of the team, to sell the team, which he refused to do. However, Mr. Kawakatsu, who represented the most ardent supporter of Nankai's ownership of the Hawks, died in 1988, and the team was sold to the
Daiei Corporation to become the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks after the 1988 season.
Hiromitsu Kadota, and
Chusuke Kizuka are among the more notable franchise players that were active during the Nankai era.
Fukuoka Daiei Hawks (1988 to 2004)
After the franchise was acquired by department store chain Daiei, Inc., the Hawks were flush with new funds and a new home city in Fukuoka, the capital of the eponymous prefecture on Kyushu Island. However, in spite of those efforts of the new ownership, the Hawks still were usually in the cellar of the Pacific League, and continued to be at the bottom half of the league until 1997.
The Hawks front office adopted a strategy of drafting and developing younger players, supplemented by free agent signings, a policy overseen by team president Ryuzo Setoyama and his aides. Setoyama's most brilliant moves were the hiring of
Sadaharu Oh to take the reins of manager, a title he would hold until 2008 before he moved into the general manager's position. Oh replaced then-manager Rikuo Nemoto, who was named team president and held that position until his death in 1999. Also tapped was Akira Ishikawa, a little-known former player, who was tasked with bringing in talented amateurs. He brought in the likes of current
Hanshin Tigers catcher
Nobuhiko Matsunaka, future
Chicago White Sox and current
Chiba Lotte Marines infielder
Tadahito Iguchi, shortstop
Munenori Kawasaki, and future team captain
Supplementing the amateur signings were some free-agent acquisitions, most of them former Seibu stars from their 1980s championship teams. Among them were infielder
Hiromichi Ishige, immensely popular outfielder (and Hawks manager from 2008–2014)
Koji Akiyama, and ace left-handed pitcher and current manager
These moves (and a few unpopular cost-cutting measures) helped to make the Hawks gradually more competitive with each passing year, and in 1999, the team finally broke through. That season, Daiei made their first
Japan Series appearance since 1973, and defeated the
Chunichi Dragons in five games, giving them their first championship since 1964. Kudoh was dominant in his Game 1 start (complete game, 13 strikeouts), and Akiyama was named Series MVP.
The following year, the Hawks again made the Japan Series, but this time lost to the powerful
Yomiuri Giants in six games. Despite the shaky financial ground that Daiei was on thanks to their rampant expansion in bubble-era Japan, the team continued to be competitive. The team won their second Japan Series in five years, defeating the popular
Hanshin Tigers in seven games in the
2003 Japan Series, an exciting series in which the home team won every game.
Home run record controversy
In 2001, American
Karl "Tuffy" Rhodes, playing for the
Kintetsu Buffaloes, hit 55 home runs with several games left, equaling Hawks' manager
Sadaharu Oh's single-season home run record. The Buffaloes played a weekend series against the Oh-managed Hawks late in the season, and Rhodes was intentionally walked during each at-bat of the series. Video footage showed Hawks' catcher Kenji Johjima grinning as he caught the intentional balls. Oh denied any involvement and Hawks battery coach Yoshiharu Wakana stated that the pitchers acted on his orders, saying, "It would be distasteful to see a foreign player break Oh's record." Rhodes completed the season with 55 home runs. League commissioner Hiromori Kawashima denounced the Hawks' behavior as "unsportsmanlike." Hawks pitcher
Keisaburo Tanoue went on record saying that he wanted to throw strikes to Rhodes and felt bad about the situation.
In 2002, Venezuelan
Alex Cabrera hit 55 home runs with five games left in the season, with several of those to be played against Oh's Hawks. Oh told his pitchers to throw strikes to Cabrera, but most of them ignored his order and threw balls well away from the plate. After the game, Oh stated, "If you're going to break the record, you should do it by more than one. Do it by a lot."
 In the wake of the most recent incident involving Cabrera,
ESPN listed Oh's single-season home run record as #2 on its list of "The Phoniest Records in Sports."
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Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks (2005–present)
Daiei Inc had been under financial pressure to sell its 60% stake in the team over the previous few years, with reports in 2003 suggesting the company would sell the team and the
Fukuoka Dome. Daiei attempted to hold on to the team and held discussions with its primary lenders, including
UFJ Bank, to see if it could find a way to retain the team, but ultimately the sale went through to SoftBank in January 2005.
The Hawks continued their winning ways after the sale of the team to
SoftBank. Following the sale, the Hawks represented one of the richest teams in Japan, with a player core still intact from the last years of the Daiei era. Particularly strong was the team's starting pitching behind Saitoh,
Nagisa Arakaki, and
Toshiya Sugiuchi. In 2005, the Hawks finished in first place during the regular season, but fell to the eventual
Japan Series champions, the
Chiba Lotte Marines in the second stage of the
Climax Series. In 2006, a dramatic pennant race led to an even more exciting playoff run that ended in the Sapporo Dome at the hands of the eventual Japan Series Champions, the
Hokkaido Nippon Ham Fighters. Team manager Sadaharu Oh missed most of the
2006 season due to stomach cancer.
2007 season was plagued by injuries and general ineffectiveness and inconsistency, leading to another 3rd-place finish and first-stage exit in the playoffs at the hands of the Marines. In
2008, though various injuries still affected the Hawks' bench (especially the bullpen), the club claimed its first Interleague title in June, winning a tiebreaker against the
Hanshin Tigers. However, injuries caught up with them in the final month of the season, and the Hawks finished in last place with a 54–74–2 record. The finish represented their worst since 1996.
At the end of the 2008 season, Oh announced his retirement, and former Hawk and fan favorite
Koji Akiyama was named as Oh's successor. In
2009, the team cracked the playoffs once again on the backs of breakout seasons from surging starting pitcher
D. J. Houlton, outfielder
Yuya Hasegawa, Rookie of the Year
Tadashi Settsu and another stellar season from ace Sugiuchi. However, the team still was unable to get out of the first stage, as the
Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles ousted the Hawks in a 2-game sweep.
The Hawks finally reclaimed the Pacific League regular season title in
2010 after a seven-year wait. The title came after a see-saw season in which the team recovered several times after extended losing streaks. Starting pitcher Wada, back from injury through much of the previous two seasons, was, along with fellow ace Sugiuchi, at his best. Wada set career highs in wins and games started. The reliable "SBM" relieving trio of Settsu,
Brian Falkenborg, and Mahara limited opponent offenses late in games. The bullpen also benefited from the emergence of
Keisuke Kattoh and
Masahiko Morifuku, with the latter blossoming in the second half of the season.
The Hawks offense was largely composed of role players who seemed to take turns having big games and off days, and it was the team's speed that drove the team as the Hawks led the league in stolen bases in the regular season with 148, well ahead of their nearest challenger, who had 116.
Yuichi Honda stole 59 bases while Kawasaki stole 30. However, despite putting forward a strong group, the Hawks failed to make it to the
Japan Series, losing to the
Lotte Marines in six games in the Climax Series despite having a 3–1 series lead.
SoftBank won the Pacific League again in 2011, with a dominating season on all fronts. The offense was bolstered further by the acquisition of former
Yokohama BayStars outfielder
Seiichi Uchikawa, who led the league in batting in 2011. Pitching from Sugiuchi, Wada and an excellent bounce-back season from Houlton also helped propel the team to the best record in NPB. After sweeping the
Saitama Seibu Lions in the Pacific League Climax Series, the Hawks took on the
Chunichi Dragons to win the Japan Series, a rematch of the 1999 Japan Series. The Dragons pushed SoftBank to the full seven games, but the Hawks shut out the Dragons 3–0 in the seventh game to win their first Japan Series since 2003.
The 2012 season started with losses for the Hawks. During the off season, they lost their star starters
Tsuyoshi Wada (to the
Toshiya Sugiuchi and
D.J. Houlton (to
Yomiuri Giants) through free agency. All star shortstop
Munenori Kawasaki also left the team for the
Seattle Mariners. Closer
Takahiro Mahara would sit out the season through injury. To compensate for these losses, the team acquired outfielder
Wily Mo Peña and starter
Brad Penny from the MLB, in addition to starter
Kazuyuki Hoashi from
Seibu Lions. However, of the 3 major signings, only Peña made regular contributions. Hoashi was injured in his first regular season start and did not rejoin the team for the rest of the season. Penny was in the downward spiral of his career and started only 1 game for the Hawks before being released.
The team had to deal with their off season losses to their pitching staff from within the organization. Settsu was elevated to the team's ace, while young pitchers such as
Kenji Otonari and
Hiroki Yamada were given bigger roles.
Nagisa Arakaki returned from long term injury to join the rotation. However, new closer Falkenborg had to sit out most of the season through injury, eventually handing over the role to Morifuku. Arakaki could not regain his former numbers. In the end, the losses could not be mitigated. The team could only finish third in the Pacific League regular season and eventually lost out to the
Nippon Ham Fighters in the P.L. Climax Series Final Stage. The bright spark of the season came from rookie starter
Shota Takeda, who went 8-1 with an ERA of 1.07.
In 2014 the Hawks won the
Japan Series. They won for a second consecutive season in
2015, with outfielder
Yuki Yanagita winning league MVP and the batting title. The Hawks also won the
2017 Japan Series.