Friday the 13th

Friday the 13th in a calendar

Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition. It occurs when the 13th day of the month in the Gregorian calendar falls on a Friday, which happens at least once every year but can occur up to three times in the same year,[1]for example in 2015, on 13 Feb, 13 March and 13 October. In 2017, it occurred twice, on 13 January and 13 October. In 2018, it also occurred twice, on 13 April and 13 July.[2] There will be two Friday the 13ths every year until 2020; 2021 and 2022 will have just one occurrence each.

A Friday the 13th occurs during any month that begins on a Sunday.

History

The fear of the number 13 has been given a scientific name: "triskaidekaphobia"; and on analogy to this the fear of Friday the 13th is called paraskevidekatriaphobia, from the Greek words Paraskeví (Παρασκευή, meaning "Friday"), and dekatreís (δεκατρείς, meaning "thirteen").[3]

The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci

The superstition surrounding this day may have arisen in the Middle Ages, "originating from the story of Jesus' last supper and crucifixion" in which there were 13 individuals present in the Upper Room on the 13th of Nisan Maundy Thursday, the night before his death on Good Friday.[4][5] While there is evidence of both Friday[6] and the number 13 being considered unlucky, there is no record of the two items being referred to as especially unlucky in conjunction before the 19th century.[7][8][9]

An early documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards' 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th:

He [Rossini] was surrounded to the last by admiring friends; and if it be true that, like so many Italians, he regarded Fridays as an unlucky day and thirteen as an unlucky number, it is remarkable that on Friday 13th of November he passed away.[10]

Rossini by Henri Grevedon

It is possible that the publication in 1907 of Thomas W. Lawson's popular novel Friday, the Thirteenth,[11] contributed to disseminating the superstition. In the novel, an unscrupulous broker takes advantage of the superstition to create a Wall Street panic on a Friday the 13th.[7]

A suggested origin of the superstition—Friday, 13 October 1307, the date Philip IV of France arrested hundreds of the Knights Templar—may not have been formulated until the 20th century. It is mentioned in the 1955 Maurice Druon historical novel The Iron King (Le Roi de fer), John J. Robinson's 1989 work Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code and Steve Berry's The Templar Legacy (2006).[3][12][13]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пятніца 13
български: Петък 13-и
español: Viernes 13
Esperanto: Vendredo la 13-a
français: Vendredi treize
հայերեն: Ուրբաթ, 13
Bahasa Indonesia: Jumat-13
Lëtzebuergesch: Paraskavedekatriaphobie
македонски: Петок тринаесетти
norsk nynorsk: Fredag den 13.
português: Sexta-Feira 13
română: Vineri 13
русский: Пятница, 13
slovenčina: Piatok trinásteho
slovenščina: Petek trinajstega
српски / srpski: Петак 13.
українська: П'ятниця 13-го
Tiếng Việt: Thứ Sáu ngày 13