French people

French people
Total population
c. 76.8 million[a]
(Full French ancestry)
Regions with significant populations
(including overseas departments)[1]
 United States10,329,465 (includes ancestry)[2]
 Canada8,790,250 (includes ancestry)[3]
 Argentina6,000,000 (includes ancestry)[4]
 Brazil1,000,000 (includes ancestry)[5]
 Chile506,000 (includes ancestry)
(French citizens)[9][10]
 United Kingdom126,049[7]
Other countries
 Hong Kong25,000[18]
 New Zealand4,593[24][23]
 Dominican Republic2,000[23]
Related ethnic groups

French people (French: Français) are a Romance[27][28][29] ethnic group[30][31][32] and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, legal, historical, or cultural.

Historically the heritage of the French people is mostly of Celtic or Gallic, Latin (Romans) and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls or Celts from the Atlantic to the Rhone Alps, Germanic tribes that settled France from east of the Rhine and Belgium after the fall of the Roman empire such as the Franks, Burgundians, Allemanni, Saxons, Visigoths and Suebi, Latin and Roman tribes such as Ligurians and Gallo-Roman Aquitani, Norse populations largely settling in Normandy at the beginning of the 10th century and “Bretons” (Celtic Britons) settling in Brittany in Western France. [33] France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, and while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Occitan, Catalan, Auvergnat, Corsican, Basque, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian, Alsatian, and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is also widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century (a spot previously held by Breton and Occitan).[34]

Modern French society is a melting pot.[35] From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration, mainly consisting of Arab-Berbers, Jews, Sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, and the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms. Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration,[36] French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law.[37]

In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies (French Caribbean), and in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland (French Swiss), the United States (French Americans), Canada (French Canadians), Argentina (French Argentines), Brazil (French Brazilians), Chile (French Chileans) and Uruguay (French Uruguayans).[38][39]

Citizenship and legal residence

To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion (sans distinction d'origine, de race ou de religion).[37] According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" ('everyday plebiscite') on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").

The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open.[40]

A large number of foreigners[41] have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so.[42] Indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available.[43] Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries (for instance, this is the case with Switzerland: one can be both French and Swiss). The European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector (though not as trainees in reserved branches, e.g., as magistrates).

Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and strongly advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has recently been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves (communautarisme). The 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs (les quartiers sensibles) were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts (as appeared before in other countries like the USA and the UK) but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.[44]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Franse
العربية: فرنسيون
aragonés: Franceses
azərbaycanca: Fransızlar
বাংলা: ফরাসী
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoat-kok-lâng
беларуская: Французы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Французы
български: Французи
bosanski: Francuzi
català: Francesos
čeština: Francouzi
Cymraeg: Ffrancod
Deutsch: Franzosen
Diné bizaad: Dáághahii dineʼé
Ελληνικά: Γάλλοι
español: Pueblo francés
Esperanto: Francoj
euskara: Frantziar
Gaeilge: Francaigh
한국어: 프랑스인
հայերեն: Ֆրանսիացիներ
hrvatski: Francuzi
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangsa Prancis
italiano: Francesi
עברית: צרפתים
ქართული: ფრანგები
қазақша: Француздар
Kreyòl ayisyen: Franse
kurdî: Fransayî
лакку: Паранг
latviešu: Franči
lietuvių: Prancūzai
Limburgs: Fransoze
Lingua Franca Nova: Franses
magyar: Franciák
македонски: Французи
მარგალური: ფრანგეფი
Nederlands: Fransen
日本語: フランス人
нохчийн: Французаш
norsk nynorsk: Franskmenn
polski: Francuzi
português: Franceses
română: Francezi
русский: Французы
sardu: Frantzesos
slovenčina: Francúzi
slovenščina: Francozi
српски / srpski: Французи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Francuzi
svenska: Fransmän
татарча/tatarça: Французлар
Türkçe: Fransızlar
українська: Французи
Tiếng Việt: Người Pháp
ייִדיש: פראנצויזן
粵語: 法國人
Zazaki: Fransız
中文: 法兰西人