French First Republic

French Republic
République française
Flag of France (1794–1958).svg
  • Left: Flag (until 1794)
  • Right: Flag (from 1794)
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ou la Mort
"La Marseillaise"[1]
French Republic (1801)
GovernmentAuthoritarian directorial republic
President of the National Convention
 • 1792Philippe Rühl (first)
 • 1795Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu (last)
President of the Directory
 • 1795–1799By rotation: 3 months duration
First Consul
 • 1799–1804Napoléon Bonaparte
 • Upper houseCouncil of Ancients (1795–1799)
 • Lower house
Historical eraFrench Revolutionary Wars
 • Storming of the Bastille and French Revolution14 July 1789
 • Overthrow of Louis XVI21 September 1792
 • Committee of Public Safety and Reign of Terror5 September 1793 to
28 July 1794
 • (First) Abolition of slavery4 February 1794
 • Thermidorean Reaction24 July 1794
 • Coup of 18 Brumaire9 November 1799
 • Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed emperor by the Senate18 May 1804
Currencylivre (to 1794), franc, assignat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of France
Austrian Netherlands
First French Empire
Today part of

In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

End of the monarchy in France

Under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. In July 1792, the Duke of Brunswick, commanding general of the Austro–Prussian Army, issued his Brunswick Manifesto, in which he threatened the destruction of Paris should any harm come to King Louis XVI of France. The foreign threat exacerbated France's political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion and sense of urgency among the various factions. In the violence of 10 August 1792, citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the King's Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king.[2] A renewed fear of anti-revolutionary action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the city's prisons, killing over half of the prisoners. This included nobles, clergymen, and political prisoners, but also numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped, stabbed, and slashed to death. This became known as the September Massacres.[3]

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Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Pertama Perancis
Simple English: French First Republic
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Prva Francuska Republika