Frederick Henry was born on 29 January 1584 in
Dutch Republic. He was the youngest child of
William the Silent and
Louise de Coligny. His father William was stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, and Friesland. His mother Louise was daughter of the Huguenot leader
Gaspard de Coligny, and was the fourth wife of his father. He was thus the half brother of his predecessor
Maurice of Orange, deceased in 1625.
Frederick Henry was born six months before his father's
assassination on 10 July 1584. The boy was trained to arms by his elder brother
Maurice, one of the finest generals of his age. After Maurice threatened to legimitize his illegitimate children if he did not marry, Frederick Henry married
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels in 1625. His illegitimate son by Margaretha Catharina Bruyns (1595–1625),
Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein was born in 1624 before his marriage. This son later became the governor of the young
William III of England for seven years.
On the death of Maurice in 1625 without legitimate issue, Frederick Henry succeeded him in his paternal dignities and estates, and also in the
stadtholderates of the five provinces of
Guelders, and in the important posts of captain and admiral-general of the Union (commander-in-chief of the
Dutch States Army and of the
Frederick Henry proved himself almost as good a general as his brother, and a far more capable statesman and politician. For twenty-two years he remained at the head of government in the United Provinces, and in his time the power of the stadtholderate reached its highest point. The "Period of Frederick Henry," as it is usually styled by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the
golden age of the republic. It was marked by great military and naval triumphs, by worldwide maritime and commercial expansion, and by a wonderful outburst of activity in the domains of art and literature.
The chief military exploits of Frederick Henry were the sieges and captures of
Grol in 1627,
's-Hertogenbosch in 1629, of
Maastricht in 1632, of
Breda in 1637, of
Sas van Gent in 1644, and of
Hulst in 1645. During the greater part of his administration the alliance with France against Spain had been the pivot of Frederick Henry's foreign policy, but in his last years he sacrificed the French alliance for the sake of concluding a separate peace with Spain, by which the United Provinces obtained from that power all the advantages they had been seeking for eighty years.
Frederick Henry built the
Huis ter Nieuwburg, and for his wife
Huis ten Bosch, and he renovated the
Noordeinde Palace in
The Hague. Huis Honselaarsdijk and Huis ter Nieuwburg are now demolished.
The funeral procession of Frederik Hendrik, etching with colour, h 225mm × w 565mm.
Frederick Henry died on 14 March 1647 in
The Hague, Holland, Dutch Republic. He left his wife
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, his son
William II, Prince of Orange, four of his daughters, and his illegitimate son
Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein.
On Frederick Henry's death, he was buried with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft. The
treaty of Munster, ending the long struggle between the Dutch and the Spaniards, was not actually signed until 30 January 1648, the illness and death of the stadtholder having caused a delay in the negotiations. Frederick Henry left an account of his campaigns in his Mémoires de Frédéric Henri (Amsterdam, 1743). See Cambridge Mod. Hist. vol. iv. chap. 24.
His widow commissioned an elaborate mausoleum in the
Oranjezaal, a panoramic painted ballroom with scenes from his life and allegories of good government based on his achievements.