Franks

Franks
Franci
Frankish arms.JPG
Aristocratic Frankish burial items from the Merovingian period
Languages
Old Frankish
Religion
Frankish paganism, Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Germanic peoples, French people

The Franks (Latin: Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[1][2][3][a]

Although the Frankish name only appears in the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known under their own names to the Romans, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies. The new name first appears when the Romans and their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid into Roman territory, but from the beginning this was associated also with attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, for example by Saxons, and a desire by frontier tribes to move into Roman territory, with which they had centuries of close contact.

Known Frankish peoples inside the Roman Rhine river frontier were the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, and the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts, eventually conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. Later, in a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul (roughly modern France). Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces. (According to Gregory of Tours, Aegidius held the kingship of the Franks for 8 years while Childeric was in exile.) This new type of kingship, perhaps inspired by Alaric I,[4] represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians eventually came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.

In the Middle Ages, the term Frank came to be used as a synonym for Western European, as the Carolingian Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe, and established a political order which was the basis of the European ancien regime that only ended with the French revolution. Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant, where they still referred to themselves and the Principalities they established as Frankish. This has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages.[5][6][7]

From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and legally divided between an eastern Frankish and Germanic part, and the western part which the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil. The eastern Frankish kingdom came to be seen as the new "Holy Roman Empire", and was from early times occasionally called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" - a name derived directly from the Franks.

Name

A 19th century depiction of different Franks (AD 400–600)

The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[8] the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank", originally meaning "free".[9] There have also been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin" (such as in Old English franca or Old Norse frakka).[10] Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent" (German frech, Middle Dutch vrac, Old English frǣc and Old Norwegian frakkr), may also be significant.[11]

Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures:[12][13] Latin: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas? ("Where now is that ferocity of yours? Where is that ever untrustworthy fickleness?"). Latin: Feroces was used often to describe the Franks.[14] Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by period and point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell [in the official's province], Franks, Romans, Burgundians and those of other nations, live ... according to their law and their custom."[15] Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word 'Frankish' quickly ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest; Romani [Romans] were essentially the inhabitants of Aquitaine after that".[16]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Franke
Alemannisch: Franken (Volk)
Ænglisc: Francan
العربية: فرنجة
aragonés: Francos
asturianu: Pueblu francu
azərbaycanca: Franklar
Bân-lâm-gú: Frank lâng
беларуская: Франкі
български: Франки
bosanski: Franci
brezhoneg: Franked
català: Francs
Чӑвашла: Франксем
čeština: Frankové
Cymraeg: Ffranciaid
dansk: Frankere
eesti: Frangid
Ελληνικά: Φράγκοι
español: Pueblo franco
Esperanto: Frankoj
euskara: Frankoak
فارسی: فرانک‌ها
føroyskt: Frankar
français: Francs
Frysk: Franken
Gaeilge: Na Frainc
galego: Francos
한국어: 프랑크인
hrvatski: Franci
Bahasa Indonesia: Suku Franka
íslenska: Frankar
italiano: Franchi
עברית: פרנקים
ქართული: ფრანკები
қазақша: Франктер
Kiswahili: Wafaranki
kurdî: Frank
Latina: Franci
latviešu: Franki
lietuvių: Frankai
lumbaart: Franch (pòpol)
magyar: Frankok
македонски: Франки
مصرى: فرانكس
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Frank
монгол: Франк
Nederlands: Franken (volk)
Nedersaksies: Franken
日本語: フランク人
Nordfriisk: Franken (fulk)
norsk: Frankere
norsk nynorsk: Frankarar
occitan: Francs
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Franklar
polski: Frankowie
português: Francos
română: Franci
русский: Франки
Scots: Franks
sicilianu: Franchi
Simple English: Franks
slovenčina: Frankovia
slovenščina: Franki
српски / srpski: Франци
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Franci
suomi: Frankit
svenska: Franker
Türkçe: Franklar
українська: Франки
Tiếng Việt: Người Frank
West-Vlams: Frankn
粵語: 法蘭克人
中文: 法蘭克人
Lingua Franca Nova: Franco