Frankincense

Frankincense from Yemen
Boswellia sacra tree, from which frankincense is derived, growing inside Biosphere 2

Frankincense (also known as olibanum, Hebrew: לבונה[levona], Arabic: al-lubān) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera. The word is from Old French franc encens ("high-quality incense").[1]

There are five main species of Boswellia that produce true frankincense. Resin from each of the four is available in various grades, which depend on the time of harvesting. The resin is then hand-sorted for quality.

Etymology

The English word frankincense is derived from the Old French expression franc encens, meaning "high-quality incense". The word franc in Old French meant "noble" or "pure".[2]

A popular folk etymology suggests a connection with the Franks (the forefathers of some French and Germans), who reintroduced the spice to Western Europe during the Middle Ages, but the word itself comes from the expression.[2][3]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Inbærnes
العربية: لبان
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܒܘܢܬܐ
বাংলা: লোবান
беларуская: Ладан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ладан
български: Тамян
Boarisch: Weihrauch
brezhoneg: Frankezañs
català: Olíban
čeština: Kadidlo
Cymraeg: Thus
dansk: Røgelse
Deutsch: Weihrauch
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވައިގުގޫ
eesti: Viiruk
Ελληνικά: Λιβάνι
español: Olíbano
Esperanto: Olibano
فارسی: صمغ کندر
Gaeilge: Túis
한국어: 유향
հայերեն: Խունկ
हिन्दी: लोहबान
hrvatski: Tamjan
Bahasa Indonesia: Kemenyan arab
italiano: Franchincenso
עברית: לבונה
ქართული: საკმეველი
Kiswahili: Uvumba
Latina: Tus
Lëtzebuergesch: Wäirauch
lietuvių: Ladanas
magyar: Tömjén
македонски: Темјан
മലയാളം: സാമ്പ്രാണി
Nāhuatl: Tlenemāctli
Nederlands: Olibanum
日本語: 乳香
norsk: Virak
norsk nynorsk: Virak
occitan: Encens
polski: Olibanum
português: Olíbano
română: Tămâie
русский: Ладан
shqip: Temjani
sicilianu: Franchincenzu
slovenčina: Kadidlo
slovenščina: Sveto kadilo
Soomaaliga: Uunsi
српски / srpski: Тамјан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tamjan
svenska: Olibanum
Tagalog: Kamanyang
ไทย: กำยาน
українська: Ладан
吴语: 乳香
粵語: 乳香
中文: 乳香