Frankincense

Frankincense from Yemen

Frankincense (also known as olibanum, Hebrew: לבונה [levona], Arabic: al-lubān) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra ( syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera. The English word is derived from Old French "franc encens" (i.e., high quality incense). [1]

There are four main species of Boswellia that produce true frankincense. Resin from each of the four is available in various grades, which depend on the time of harvesting. The resin is then hand-sorted for quality.

Etymology

The English word frankincense is derived from the Old French expression franc encens meaning high-quality incense. The word franc in Old French meant noble or pure. [2] A popular folk etymology is that this expression derived from the fact that the Frankish people (the forefathers of modern France and Germany) (re-)introduced the spice to Western Europe during the Middle Ages. However, though the ethnic term Frank and the generic term frank are probably related, it is nevertheless the generic term from which the word francincense in fact derives. [2] [3]

The term olibanum is a Medieval Latin word that derives from the Latin expression oleum libani ("gum of francincense"). The Latin word libanus/libani in turn derives from the Greek libanos/libanotos, itself derived from a Semitic source (c.f. Arabic lubān). [4] [5]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Inbærnes
العربية: لبان
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܒܘܢܬܐ
বাংলা: লোবান
беларуская: Ладан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ладан
български: Тамян
Boarisch: Weihrauch
brezhoneg: Frankezañs
català: Olíban
čeština: Kadidlo
Cymraeg: Thus
dansk: Røgelse
Deutsch: Weihrauch
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވައިގުގޫ
eesti: Viiruk
Ελληνικά: Λιβάνι
español: Olíbano
Esperanto: Olibano
فارسی: صمغ کندر
Gaeilge: Túis
한국어: 유향
Հայերեն: Խունկ
हिन्दी: लोहबान
hrvatski: Tamjan
Bahasa Indonesia: Kemenyan arab
italiano: Franchincenso
ქართული: საკმეველი
Kiswahili: Uvumba
Latina: Tus
lietuvių: Ladanas
magyar: Tömjén
മലയാളം: സാമ്പ്രാണി
Nāhuatl: Tlenemāctli
Nederlands: Olibanum
日本語: 乳香
norsk: Virak
norsk nynorsk: Virak
occitan: Encens
polski: Olibanum
português: Olíbano
română: Tămâie
русский: Ладан
shqip: Temjani
sicilianu: Franchincenzu
slovenčina: Kadidlo
slovenščina: Sveto kadilo
Soomaaliga: Uunsi
српски / srpski: Тамјан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tamjan
svenska: Olibanum
Tagalog: Kamanyang
ไทย: กำยาน
українська: Ладан
粵語: 乳香
中文: 乳香