Forth Road Bridge

Forth Road Bridge
The Forth Road Bridge (before all the trouble...) - panoramio.jpg
Coordinates56°00′03″N 03°24′15″W / 56°00′03″N 03°24′15″W / 56.00083; -3.40417
Carries
CrossesFirth of Forth
LocaleEdinburgh and Fife, Scotland
Official nameForth Road Bridge
Maintained byTransport Scotland
Characteristics
DesignSuspension bridge
Total length2,512 m (8,241 ft)[1]
Width33 m (108 ft) dual two-lane carriageway, two cycle/footpaths[1]
Height156 m (512 ft)[2]
Longest span1,006 m (3,301 ft)[1]
Clearance below44.3 m (145 ft)[1]
History
Constructed bySir William Arrol & Co., Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company and Dorman Long
Opened4 September 1964
Statistics
Daily traffic65,000 vpd (2012 figures)[3]
TollFree since 11 February 2008
Forth Road Bridge is located in Edinburgh
Forth Road Bridge
Forth Road Bridge
Forth Road Bridge
Forth Road Bridge is located in Fife
Forth Road Bridge
Forth Road Bridge
Forth Road Bridge (Fife)

The Forth Road Bridge is a suspension bridge in east central Scotland. The bridge opened in 1964 and at the time was the largest suspension bridge in the world outside the USA.[4] The bridge spans the Firth of Forth, connecting Edinburgh, at Queensferry, to Fife, at North Queensferry. It replaced a centuries-old ferry service to carry vehicular traffic, cyclists and pedestrians across the Forth; railway crossings are made by the nearby Forth Bridge, opened in 1890.

The Scottish Parliament voted to scrap tolls on the bridge from February 2008.[5] By that time, the bridge was carrying traffic considerably in excess of its design capacity, and a parallel replacement was later built. On 5 September 2017, all traffic was transferred to the new Queensferry Crossing.[6] This allowed the Forth Road Bridge to be closed for repairs and also for realignment work on the approach roads to enable its new role as a "public transport corridor"; it was re-opened, for buses, taxis, cyclists and pedestrians only, from 1 February 2018.[7]

The bridge can also be used for other traffic in special circumstances, such as roadworks on the Queensferry Crossing, as happened in late November 2017.[8][9][10]

At its peak, the Forth Road Bridge carried 65,000 vehicles per day.

History

The first crossing at the site of the bridge was established in the 11th century by Margaret, queen consort of King Malcolm III, who founded a ferry service to transport religious pilgrims from Edinburgh to Dunfermline Abbey and St Andrews.[11] Its creation gave rise to the port towns of Queensferry and North Queensferry, which remain to this day; the passenger ferry service continued without interruption for over 800 years. There were proposals as early as the 1740s for a road crossing at the site, although its viability was only considered after the Forth Bridge was built in 1890.[12]

The importance of the crossing for vehicular traffic was underpinned when the Great Britain road numbering scheme was drawn up in the 1920s. The planners wished the arterial A9 road to be routed across the Forth here, although the unwillingness to have a ferry crossing as part of this route led to the A90 number being assigned instead.[13]

There was more lobbying for a road crossing in the 1920s and 1930s, when the only vehicle crossing was a single passenger and vehicle ferry. Sir William Denny championed the expansion of that service in the 1930s, providing and operating on behalf of the London and North Eastern Railway two additional ferries to supplement the nearby railway bridge. Due to their success, two more ferry boats were added in the 1940s and 1950s,[14] by which time the ferries were making 40,000 crossings annually, carrying 1.5 million passengers and 800,000 vehicles.

Design

With the then newest and nearest bridge spanning the Forth (the Kincardine Bridge, built in 1936) still around 15 miles (24 km) upstream, the upsurge in demand for a road crossing between Edinburgh and Fife[15] prompted the UK Government to establish the Forth Road Bridge Joint Board (FRBJB) by Act of Parliament in 1947 to oversee the implementation of a new bridge to replace the ferry service.[16] The authorities on both sides investigated in 1955, and drew up an alternative scheme for a tunnel beneath the estuary. This was known as the Maunsell Scheme, and was projected to run somewhat closer to the rail bridge than the present road bridge. The scheme was abandoned as too ambitious, and a bridge was built instead.[17]

Construction

Under construction in July 1962

The final construction plan was accepted in February 1958 and work began in September of that year.[18] Mott, Hay and Anderson and Freeman Fox and Partners carried out the design work and a joint venture of Sir William Arrol & Co., Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company and Dorman Long constructed the bridge at a cost of £11.5 million; the total cost of the project including road connections and realignments was £19.5 million. The resident design engineer was John Alexander King Hamilton FRSE (1900–1982).[19]

It was the longest steel suspension bridge in Europe.[20] It used 210,000 tons of concrete, with 9 miles (14 kilometres) of grade-separated dual-carriageway approach roads. Reed and Mallik (known for Reema construction of houses) of Salisbury, Wiltshire, built the approach viaducts.[21]

Twenty-four individual bridges were built for the approach roads. The 4 12-mile (7.2 km) southern approach road of the A90 began at Cramond Bridge, over the River Almond on the western outskirts of Edinburgh, near Craigiehall. There were two-level interchanges built at Burnshot, Dolphington (B924) and the Echline junction (A904 and B800). At Dalmeny there was a bridge over the railway. The southern approach roads were built by A.M. Carmichael Ltd. The 4 mi (6 km) northern approach road had three two-level junctions at Ferry Toll[22] (for the B980), Admiralty (for Rosyth Dockyard via the A985, and Inverkeithing via the A921) and at Mastertown/Masterton (for what would be the fledgling M90 southern terminus). The Masterton junction was an octopus junction, a variation of a clover-leaf junction, with six bridges and a 600 ft viaduct. There were fifteen bridges built for this approach road. The northern approach road terminated as the A823(M) at a roundabout with the A823 south of Dunfermline, next to Rosyth railway station.[23] The northern approach roads were built by Whatlings Ltd of Glasgow, later bought by Alfred McAlpine.

Seven lives were lost during construction before the bridge was opened by Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh on 4 September 1964.[24] The ferry service was discontinued as of that date.

Operation

The bridge's management was delegated to the FRBJB, and remained so until 2002 when its operation was transferred to a new body with a wider remit, the Forth Estuary Transport Authority.[25]

On 1 December 2010, the bridge was closed for the first time due to heavy snow. After several accidents meant snowploughs were unable to clear the carriageways, the bridge was closed in both directions at 6.40 a.m. and remained closed for several hours.[26]

As part of celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the bridge's operation, artist Kate Downie was commissioned to create a print of the bridge and hold an exhibition of works portraying it.[27]

On 1 June 2015, Amey took over the maintenance and operating of the bridge on behalf of Transport Scotland from the Forth Estuary Transport Authority and are now called[clarification needed] the Forth Bridges Unit.[28]

Public Transport Corridor

On 1 February 2018, the bridge became a Public Transport Corridor, with all approach roads in full operation.[29][30] The bridge was closed between September and mid October 2017 for roadworks before partially reopening for public buses.[31]

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