Foraminifera

Foraminifera
Temporal range: 542–0 Ma[1]Cambrian–Recent
Ammonia tepida.jpg
Live Ammonia tepida (Rotaliida)
Scientific classification
Domain:Eukaryota
(unranked):SAR
(unranked):Rhizaria
Phylum:Retaria
Subphylum:Foraminifera
d'Orbigny, 1826
Orders

Allogromiida
Carterinida
Fusulinidaextinct
Globigerinida
Involutinidaextinct
Lagenida
Miliolida
Robertinida
Rotaliida
Silicoloculinida
Spirillinida
Textulariida
incertae sedis
   Xenophyophorea
   Reticulomyxa

Foraminifera (ə/; Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials. Tests of chitin (found in some simple genera, and Textularia in particular) are believed to be the most primitive type. Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment (i.e., are benthic), while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths (i.e., are planktonic). Fewer are known from freshwater or brackish conditions, and some very few (nonaquatic) soil species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA.[2][3]

Foraminifera typically produce a test, or shell, which can have either one or multiple chambers, some becoming quite elaborate in structure.[4] These shells are commonly made of calcium carbonate (CaCO
3
) or agglutinated sediment particles. Over 50,000 species are recognized, both living (10,000)[5] and fossil (40,000).[6][7] They are usually less than 1 mm in size, but some are much larger, the largest species reaching up to 20 cm.[8]

In modern Scientific English, the term foraminifera is both singular and plural (irrespective of the word's Latin derivation), and is used to describe one or more specimens or taxa: its usage as singular or plural must be determined from context. Foraminifera is frequently used informally to describe the group, and in these cases is generally lowercase.[9]

Taxonomy

The taxonomic position of the Foraminifera has varied since their recognition as protozoa (protists) by Schultze in 1854,[10] there referred to as an order, Foraminiferida. Loeblich and Tappan (1992) reranked Foraminifera as a class[11] as it is now commonly regarded.

The Foraminifera have typically been included in the Protozoa,[12][13][14] or in the similar Protoctista or Protist kingdom.[15][16] Compelling evidence, based primarily on molecular phylogenetics, exists for their belonging to a major group within the Protozoa known as the Rhizaria.[12] Prior to the recognition of evolutionary relationships among the members of the Rhizaria, the Foraminifera were generally grouped with other amoeboids as phylum Rhizopodea (or Sarcodina) in the class Granuloreticulosa.

The Rhizaria are problematic, as they are often called a "supergroup", rather than using an established taxonomic rank such as phylum. Cavalier-Smith defines the Rhizaria as an infra-kingdom within the kingdom Protozoa.[12]

Some taxonomies put the Foraminifera in a phylum of their own, putting them on par with the amoeboid Sarcodina in which they had been placed.

Although as yet unsupported by morphological correlates, molecular data strongly suggest the Foraminifera are closely related to the Cercozoa and Radiolaria, both of which also include amoeboids with complex shells; these three groups make up the Rhizaria.[13] However, the exact relationships of the forams to the other groups and to one another are still not entirely clear. Foraminifera are closely related to testate amoebae.[17]

The most recent taxonomy by Mikhalevich 2013.[18]

  • Foraminifera d'Orbigny 1826
    • Order Reticulomyxida
    • Class Schizocladea Cedhagen & Mattson 1992
      • Order Schizocladida
    • Class Xenophyophorea Schultze 1904
      • Order Stannomida Tendal 1972
      • Order Psamminida Tendal 1972
    • Class Astrorhizata Saidova 1981
      • Subclass Lagynana Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Ammoscalariida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Lagynida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Allogromiida Loeblich & Tappan 1961
      • Subclass Astrorhizana Saidova 1981
        • Order Astrorhizida Lankester 1885
        • Order Dendrophryida Mikhalevich 1995
        • Order Hippocrepinida Saidova 1981
        • Order † Parathuramminida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Psammosphaerida Haeckel 1894
    • Class Rotaliata Mikhalevich 1980 (hyaline foraminifers)
      • Subclass Globigerinana Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Cassigerinellida Mikhalevich 2013
        • Order Globigerinida Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862
        • Order Hantkeninida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Heterohelicida Fursenko 1958
        • Order Globorotaliida Mikhalevich 1980
      • Subclass Textulariana Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Nautiloculinida Mikhalevich 2003
        • Order Spiroplectamminida Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Textulariida Delage & Hérouard 1896
        • Order Trochamminida Saidova 1981 (Carterinida Loeblich & Tappan 1955]
        • Order Verneuilinida Mikhalevich & Kaminski 2003
      • Subclass Rotaliana Mikhalevich 1980
        • Superorder Robertinoida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Superorder Nonionoida Saidova 1981
          • Order Elphidiida Saidova 1981
          • Order Nummulitida Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862
          • Order † Orbitoidida Copeland 1956
          • Order Nonionida Saidova 1981
        • Superorder Buliminoida Saidova 1981
          • Order Cassidulinida d’Orbigny 1839
          • Order Buliminida Saidova 1981
          • Order Bolivinitida Saidova 1981
        • Superorder Discorboida Ehrenberg 1838
          • Order Chilostomellida Haeckel 1894
          • Order Discorbida Ehrenberg 1838
          • Order Glabratellida Mikhalevich 1994
          • Order Planorbulinida Mikhalevich 1992
          • Order Rotaliida Lankester 1885
          • Order Rosalinida Delage & Hérouard 1896
    • Class Nodosariata Mikhalevich 1992
      • Subclass Hormosinana Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Ammomarginulinida Mikhalevich 2002
        • Order Nouriida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order † Pseudopalmulida Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Saccamminida Lankester 1885
        • Order Hormosinida Mikhalevich 1980
      • Subclass Nodosariana Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order † Biseriamminida Mikhalevich 1981
        • Order Delosinida Revets 1989
        • Order Lagenida Delage & Hérouard 1896
        • Order † Palaeotextulariida Hohenegger & Piller 1975
        • Order Polymorphinida Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order Vaginulinida Mikhalevich 1993
        • Order Nodosariida Calkins 1926
    • Class Spirillinata Mikhalevich 1992
      • Subclass Ammodiscana Mikhalevich 1980
        • Order † Plagioraphida Mikhalevich 2003
        • Order Ammodiscida Mikhalevich 1980 [Pseudoammodiscoida Conil & Lys 1970]
        • Order Ammovertellinida Mikhalevich 1999
        • Order Ataxophragmiida Fursenko 1958 [Orbitolinida Ehrenberg 1839]
      • Subclass Spirillinana Mikhalevich 1992
        • Superorder † Archaediscoida Pojarkov & Skvortsov 1979
          • Order † Archaediscida Pojarkov & Skvortsov 1979
          • Order † Lasiodiscida Mikhalevich 1993
          • Order † Tetrataxida Mikhalevich 1981
        • Superorder Involutinoida Hohenegger & Piller 1977
          • Order † Hottingerellida Mikhalevich 1993
          • Order Involutinida Hohenegger & Piller 1977
        • Superorder Spirillinoida Hohenegger & Piller 1975
          • Order Seabrookiida Mikhalevich 1980
          • Order Cymbaloporida Mikhaelevich 2013
          • Order Spirillinida Hohenegger & Piller 1975
          • Order Patellinida Mikhalevich 1992
    • Class Miliolata Saidova 1981 (porcelaneous foraminifers)
      • Subclass Schlumbergerinana Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Lituotubida Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Loftusiida Kaminski & Mikhalevich 2004
        • Order Sphaeramminida Mikhalevich & Kaminski 2004
        • Order Cyclolinida Mikhalevich 1992
        • Order Haplophragmiida Loeblich & Tappan 1989
        • Order Schlumbergerinida Mikhalevich 1980 [Rzehakinida Saidova 1981]
        • Order Lituolida Lankester 1885
      • Subclass Miliolana Saidova 1981
        • Clade Fusulinoids
          • Order † Ozawainellida Solovieva 1980
          • Order † Endothyroida Fursenko 1958
          • Order † Tournayellida Hohenegger & Piller 1973
          • Order †Fusulinida Fursenko 1958
          • Order † Neoschwagerinida Minato & Honjo 1966
          • Order † Schubertellida Skinner 1931
          • Order † Schwagerinida Solovieva 1985
          • Order † Staffellida Miklukho-Maklay 1949
        • Clade Milioloids
          • Order † Costiferida Mikhalevich 1988
          • Order Squamulinida Mikhalevich 1988
          • Order Cornuspirida Jirovec 1953
          • Order Soritida Schultze 1854 [Orbitolitida Wedekind 1937]
          • Order Nubeculariida Jones 1875
          • Order Miliolida Delage & Hérouard 1896
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Foraminifera
العربية: منخربات
беларуская: Фарамініферы
български: Фораминифери
català: Foraminífer
čeština: Dírkonošci
Deutsch: Foraminiferen
Ελληνικά: Τρηματοφόρα
español: Foraminifera
Esperanto: Foraminifero
euskara: Foraminifero
français: Foraminifera
한국어: 유공충
hrvatski: Krednjaci
Bahasa Indonesia: Foraminifera
interlingua: Foraminifera
íslenska: Götungar
italiano: Foraminifera
עברית: חוריריות
Basa Jawa: Foraminifera
Latina: Foraminifera
latviešu: Foraminīferas
Bahasa Melayu: Foraminifera
Nederlands: Foraminifera
日本語: 有孔虫
norsk: Poredyr
Piemontèis: Foraminìfer
Plattdüütsch: Foraminifera
polski: Otwornice
português: Foraminifera
română: Foraminifer
русский: Фораминиферы
Simple English: Foraminifera
slovenčina: Dierkavce
српски / srpski: Фораминифере
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Krednjaci
svenska: Foraminiferer
Tagalog: Foraminifera
Türkçe: Delikliler
українська: Форамініфери
Tiếng Việt: Trùng lỗ
Winaray: Foraminifera
中文: 有孔蟲門