Folk metal

Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles (for example, Dutch Heidevolk, Danish Sylvatica and Spanish Stone of Erech). It also sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock.

The earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from England and Cruachan from Ireland. Skyclad's debut album The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth was released in 1991 and would be considered a thrash metal album with some folk influences, unlike Cruachan’s early work which embraced the folk element as a defining part of their sound. It was not until 1994 and 1995 that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe and beyond. Among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the 1990s. It was not until the early 2000s when the genre exploded into prominence, particularly in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll, Ensiferum, Korpiklaani, Turisas, and Moonsorrow.

The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of both heavy metal music and folk music. A large variety of folk instruments are used in the genre with many bands consequently featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are also known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments. Lyrics in the genre commonly deal with fantasy, mythology, paganism, history and nature.



It was always my heartfelt dream to see the energy of Metal music mixed with elements from more traditional styles.

Martin Walkyier, former vocalist for Skyclad[1]

The English band Skyclad was formed in 1990 after vocalist Martin Walkyier left his previous band, Sabbat.[2] Skyclad began as a thrash metal band but added violins from session musician Mike Evans on several tracks from their debut album, The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth,[3] an effort described by Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic as "ambitious" and "groundbreaking."[4] The song "The Widdershins Jig" from the debut album has been acclaimed as "particularly significant" and "a certain first in the realms of Metal".[5] With a full-time fiddler in their lineup, the band's second album feature a "now legendary folky jig style" and "more prominent inclusion of the fiddle playing lead lines and melodies normally associated with the lead guitar parts of most other rock bands."[3]

Even with the departure of Martin Walkyier in 2001, Skyclad remains an active folk metal group today after nearly two decades since their formation.[5] In contrast, the Portuguese band Moonspell had a brief tenure in the genre. Their first release was the 1994 Under the Moonspell EP with music that featured Lusitanian folk and Medieval influences.[6] With the release of their debut album Wolfheart in the following year, the band made a transition into gothic metal and within a matter of years "quickly evolved into one of the major players of the European goth-metal scene."[7]

Cruachan were formed in 1992 in Dublin, Ireland. From the outset their intention was to mix the native Irish folk music of their home country with the more extreme side of metal music. Their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and was a full folk metal album from start to finish. In the Italian book “FOLK METAL, Dalle Origini Al Ragnarok”, a comprehensive history of the genre, Author Fabrizio Giosue credits Cruachan as being the very first real Folk Metal band. He acknowledges that Skyclad did have some folk parts in some songs before Cruachan however he goes on to say Cruachan used folk music as much as they used heavy metal music. Cruachan also used arrangements of known folk songs and melodies, Skyclad wrote folk "sounding" parts.

Spanish band Mägo de Oz was among early Folk Metal artists that were influenced by the Celtic folk music. The band introduced folk elements and instruments in their power metal-based music from their 1994 debut album.[8] Another early contributor to folk metal is the Finnish group Amorphis. They formed in 1990 with their debut album, The Karelian Isthmus, following two years later.[9] Their sophomore effort Tales from the Thousand Lakes was released in 1994 with "plenty of fascinating melodies and song structures that drew heavily from the traditional folk music of their native country."[10] The album received a favorable reception from fans with "its content quickly being exalted across the Metal underground as perhaps the very pinnacle of atmospheric Death Metal achievement."[11]

Regional variations

In the years 1994 and 1995, several distinct variations on folk metal emerged from different regions.

Medieval metal

Four singers perform in the spotlights on stage. One is a female in shorts, a gauzy beige skirt and a leather belt, and plays the fiddle, The males are wearing black sleeveless shirts, black pants and have military-looking gear. A rock band is in the background.
Subway to Sally, seen here performing live at the 2005 Sundstock Openair, has been credited as setting off medieval metal.

The German band Subway to Sally was formed in 1992 as a folk rock band, singing in English and incorporating Irish and Scottish influences in their music.[12] With their second album MCMXCV released in 1995, the band adopted a "more traditional approach" and started singing in German.[12] Taking Skyclad as an influence,[13] Subway to Sally performs a blend of hard rock and heavy metal "enriched with medieval melodies enmeshed in the songs via bagpipes, hurdy-gurdy, lute, mandoline, shalm [sic], fiddle and flute" and combined with "romantic-symbolic German-speaking poetry" in their lyrics.[14] With chart success in their native Germany,[12] they have since been credited as the band "that set off the wave of what is known as medieval rock."[15]

This distinctly German phenomenon[15] has been continued and expanded further by subsequent bands. Formed in 1996, the Berlin based In Extremo has also found chart success with their "medieval style stage garb and unashamed usage of such bizarre, sometimes hand made, instruments as the Scottish bagpipes."[16] Another band that has experienced commercial success in Germany is the Bavarian outfit Schandmaul.[17] Describing themselves as the "minstrels of today,"[15] the band employs a musical arsenal that includes the bagpipes, barrel organ, shawm, violin and mandolin.[17]

Celtic metal

Head and upper body shot of a male singer, with a shaved head and blackened eyes, performing on stage. He is wearing a double-breasted military overcoat with a large collar.
A.A. Nemtheanga fronts the Irish Celtic black metal act Primordial.

The Irish band Cruachan was formed in 1992 by guitarist Keith Fay with their first demo recording distributed in 1993.[18] Drawing inspiration from Skyclad's first album, Fay set out to combine black metal with the folk music of Ireland.[19] Their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and the band has since been acclaimed as having "gone the greatest lengths of anyone in their attempts to expand" the genre of folk metal.[20] Cruachan combination of Celtic music and heavy metal is known today as Celtic metal.[21]

Parallel to Cruachan, the black metal act Primordial also released a demo recording in 1993 and "found themselves heralded as frontrunners in the burgeoning second-wave black metal movement."[22] Irish music plays "a very big role" in Primordial but in "a dark and subtle way" through the chords and timings.[23] The band has since "established themselves as one of the most unique sounding bands in the folk-meets-black metal field."[24] Other early representatives of Celtic metal include the bands Geasa, Mägo de Oz and Waylander[21] with both groups releasing a demo recording in 1995.[25][26]

Oriental metal

Orphaned Land is a leading performer of oriental metal.
Nine Treasures performing at WOMEX 15, Budapest

The progressive metal outfit Orphaned Land was formed in 1991 in Israel with their first and only demo The Beloved's Cry released in 1993, "immediately creating a media stir"[27] that "quickly drew attention to their unorthodox style."[28] Members of the group were still teenagers when they released their debut album Sahara in 1994. The music of Orphaned Land "borrow heavily from Middle Eastern music styles"[28] with traditional elements coming from both Jewish and Arabic folk music.[29] Acclaimed as "one of the world's most unique and trailblazing heavy metal bands,"[28] Orphaned Land's style of music has since been dubbed oriental metal.[27]

The year 1993 saw the formation of Melechesh in Jerusalem, "undoubtedly the first overtly anti-Christian band to exist in one of the holiest cities in the world."[30] Melechesh began as a straightforward black metal act with their first foray into folk metal occurring on the title track of their 1996 EP The Siege of Lachish.[31] Their subsequent albums saw the group straddling the boundaries between black, death, and thrash metal, with "impressive, tastefully rendered epics chock-full of superb riffs, Middle Eastern melodies, and vocal exchanges varying from a throaty midrange screech to chanting."[32] Other oriental metal acts emerged thereafter with the band Distorted notably forming in 1996 as the first female-fronted metal act from Israel.[33]

The 2000s saw formation of several pioneering Oriental metal bands from the Arab world, the best-known of which is Myrath from Tunisia. They have released four albums (three internationally) and have toured in Europe with Orphaned Land. Their sound combined progressive metal (in the vein of Dream Theater, et al.) with specifically Arab & North African melodies and themes. The Kordz from Lebanon straddle the line between hard rock and progressive metal, and again draw on local folk melodies (produced mainly via keyboards) to broaden the sonic palette. Hard rock band Lazywall from Morocco frequently makes use of oud and djembe in their music, producing something analogous to Oriental metal (though generally no heavier than Alice in Chains). North Africa has had a growing metal scene for some time, and a few of those bands have ventured into folk-metal, notably Andaz Azzul from Algeria, which blends Berber melodies & themes with violin and metal. And Egypt's truly path-breaking female-fronted Oriental metal band Massive Scar Era has recently broken through and has posted official videos on YouTube, though they continue to face considerable discrimination at home, with frontwoman Sherine reporting harassment on account of her participation. Their sound has broadened to include the heavy use of violin (in effect making them a folk-metal band, rather than simply another of the growing profusion of heavy metal bands in the Middle East).

Oriental metal is considered a fusion genre with the Middle Eastern musical genre, and in Israel with the Mizrahi musical genre.


From the middle of the 1990s, other bands gradually emerged to combine heavy metal with folk music. Storm was a short lived Norwegian supergroup with Fenriz, Satyr and Kari Rueslåtten from the black metal groups Darkthrone, Satyricon and the doom metal band The 3rd and the Mortal respectively.[34] Their only album Nordavind was released in 1995 with the use of keyboards to imitate the sound of folk instruments.[35] The Germans Empyrium also relied on synthesizers and guitars to deliver their "dark folklore" black metal music with the release of their 1996 debut album A Wintersunset...[36]

The year 1996 also saw the debut album of the "one-man black metal project of multi-instrumentalist Vratyas Vakyas" from Germany known as Falkenbach.[37] Even though Falkenbach was formed as early as 1989, the band didn't get much attention until the debut, that includes epic music that is "rife with keyboards, Viking themes, and folk music tendencies," Falkenbach was effectively a merge of Viking metal with folk metal.[37] They were joined in the next two years by other bands combining the two genres including Windir,[38] Månegarm[39] and Thyrfing.[40]

Predating most folk metal groups, the Spanish band Mägo de Oz was formed as far back as 1989 with a self-titled debut album, released in 1994.[41] With nine members in their lineup, including a violinist and flutist, the band has evolved over the years into a combination of power metal and Celtic flavored folk metal.[41][42] They have experienced strong chart success in their native Spain as well as in South America[43] and Mexico.

The Lord Weird Slough Feg from Pennsylvania, United States also had an early formation dating back to 1990.[44] Their self-titled debut album was released in 1996 and the band has pursued a "unique style of combining traditional/power metal with folk metal."[45]

The Czech band Silent Stream of Godless Elegy had formed in 1995 as a doom metal band "laced with Pagan imagery and adventurous enough to include violins and cellos alongside the expected modern day arsenal."[46] With the release of their second album Behind the Shadows in 1998, the band began to use "folklore influences" in their music.[47]


Four long haired musicians perform on a small stage in the spotlight, long hair swinging. The singer, wearing a black leather floor-length skirt, and the bass guitar player are bare chested with black leather wrist bands. The two other guitar players are in sleeveless black shirts, one with knee-length jeans and the other with black wrist band. Amplifiers crowd the stage.
Finntroll is a prominent folk metal band with a specific interest in trolls and humppa.

The folk metal genre has dramatically expanded with the turn of the new millennium. At the forefront of this explosion, with a "revolutionary clash of tradition and amplification that set them apart", is a group from Finland known as Finntroll.[49] The band was formed in 1997 with a demo recorded the following year and a debut album Midnattens widunder released in 1999.[50] They have since developed a reputation for being "obsessed with all things trollish."[51] Their lyrics are sung exclusively in Swedish instead of the Finnish language "apparently because this language was better to evoke the trollish spirit",[49] even though the real reason for this lies in the band's original vocalist belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority. The music of Finntroll features a "real innovation" in the marriage of black metal music with a style of Finnish polka called humppa.[51] Specifically, the band took from humppa "the alternate picking bass lines accompanied with the drumbeat, and the use of accordion."[52] This unlikely mix of polka and extreme metal has received a mixed reception from critics. Andy Hinds of AllMusic laments the polka influence as undermining "the intended threat of a death metal band"[53] while his colleague Alex Henderson praises the band for their "solid, consistently likable effort," declaring that Finntroll has set themselves apart from their peers "because of their emphasis on Finnish humppa" and "the humor and irony they bring to the table."[54]

Finntroll's second album Jaktens tid was released in 2001 and became a chart success in their native Finland.[55] Some of the songs on the album feature vocals performed by Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani, another band from Finland.[56] While other folk metal bands began with metal before adding folk music, Korpiklaani started with folk music before turning metal.[57] The roots of Korpiklaani can be traced back to a Sami folk music group under the name of Shamaani Duo,[58] an "in house restaurant band" created in 1993.[59] An album of folk music was released under this name before Jonne Järvelä relocated and formed a new band Shaman.[60] The folk metal act Shaman was based on the folk music of Shamaani Duo.[61] Two albums were released in 1999 and 2001 before Shaman changed their name to Korpiklaani.[60] The change in name was accompanied by a change in the music. The traditional yoik vocals and the use of the Sámi language were dropped while the synthesizer was replaced with real folk instruments.[62] Jonne Järvelä credits his work with Finntroll as the catalyst for the shift in emphasis from folk to metal.[63]

Long-haired man in beige shirt with wide sleeves and a brown leather vest and pants, plays the electric guitar on stage and sings. There is a large pair of felt antlers pinned to the microphone.
Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani played acoustic folk music for five years before turning his attention to folk metal.[64]

While Korpiklaani used an assortment of traditional instruments to deliver their folk metal,[61] Finntroll relies on keyboards for Finnish folk melodies played in the humppa style.[50] The keyboards in Finntroll are performed by Henri Sorvali who also performs in Moonsorrow, another folk metal band from Finland that he formed with his cousin Ville Sorvali in 1995.[65] They released two demos, the first in 1997 and another in 1999, before the 2001 debut album Suden Uni.[66] Moonsorrow blends folk metal with Viking metal by incorporating "Finland's traditional folk music forms into elaborate symphonic arrangements typical of Viking metal outfits such as Bathory and Enslaved."[67] The adoption of folk elements was "becoming all the rage" in Finland by this point[68] and other folk metal bands from Finland that began to emerge in the early 2000s included Cadacross,[68] Ensiferum[69] and later on Turisas[70] and Wintersun.[71] Ensiferum notably found themselves at the top of the Finnish charts with their 2007 single "One More Magic Potion".[72] Finntroll, Korpiklaani, Moonsorrow and Turisas have all experienced chart success in their native Finland as well.[73]

There are also folk metal acts from the other Scandinavian countries. Icelandic group Skalmold is a notable example. The Norwegian act Glittertind was A-listed and played with the highest playing frequency on Norway's most popular radio channel NRK P1 with the song "Kvilelaus" (eng. Restless)"[74] and performed the song on Lindmo, the Norwegian answer to Oprah Winfrey show when they released their first full-length as a full band.[75] Other Norwegian acts include the aforementioned Storm and Windir as well as more recent groups such as Kampfar,[76] Lumsk,[77] Ásmegin and Trollfest.[78] Bands from Sweden include the aforementioned Thyrfing and Månegarm along with other acts such as Otyg[79] and Vintersorg.[80][81] Folk metal bands from Denmark include Wuthering Heights,[82] Svartsot,[83] Huldre and the Faroe Islanders Týr.[84]

Outside Scandinavia, other European nations have contributed to the growing genre. Groups from the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania includes Metsatöll,[85] Raud-Ants,[86] and Skyforger[87] while representatives from Russia include Alkonost,[88] Arkona[89] and Butterfly Temple.[90] More isolated examples across Europe include Dimmi Argus[91] and Balkandji from Bulgaria,[92] Equilibrium[93] and Finsterforst from Germany, Dalriada from Hungary, Ithilien from Belgium,[94] Cruadalach from the Czech Republic, Litvintroll from Belarus, Nightcreepers from France, Zaria from Slovenia, Mägo de Oz and Saurom from Spain, Elvenking from Italy[95] and Eluveitie from Switzerland.[96]

Folkearth is an international folk metal project with members from several different European countries. At its inception, the project consisted of 14 musicians from separate backgrounds in folk and metal music.[97] With their second album By the Sword of My Father released in 2006, the project boasted the participation of 31 musicians.[98]

Beyond the European continent, folk metal is relatively rare with only a few known acts including the aforementioned The Lord Weird Slough Feg and their fellow Americans Agalloch. The latter's music "made for a stark geographical anomaly, since its eclectic, avant-garde folk-metal was the sort of thing one would expect to emerge from Scandinavia -- not Portland, Oregon."[99] Tuatha de Danann is another geographical anomaly with their Celtic metal from Brazil.[100] Moreover there is also Skiltron who play Scottish Celtic metal who hail from Argentina, Conrad a folk metal band from Barbados, Nine Treasures from China, Orphaned Land from Israel, Myrath from Tunisia, Tengger Cavalry and The Hu from Mongolia.

Other Languages
aragonés: Folk metal
azərbaycanca: Folk metal
беларуская: Фолк-метал
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фолк-мэтал
български: Фолк метъл
català: Folk metal
čeština: Folk metal
dansk: Folk metal
Deutsch: Folk Metal
eesti: Folk metal
Ελληνικά: Folk metal
español: Folk metal
فارسی: فولک متال
français: Folk metal
galego: Folk metal
한국어: 포크 메탈
hrvatski: Folk metal
italiano: Folk metal
עברית: פולק מטאל
ქართული: ფოლკ-მეტალი
latviešu: Folkmetāls
magyar: Folk metal
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Folk metal
Nederlands: Folkmetal
norsk: Folk metal
occitan: Folk metal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Folk metal
Plattdüütsch: Folk-Metal
polski: Folk metal
português: Folk metal
română: Folk metal
русский: Фолк-метал
Scots: Fowk metal
Simple English: Folk metal
slovenčina: Folk metal
slovenščina: Folk metal
српски / srpski: Фолк метал
suomi: Folk metal
svenska: Folk metal
Türkçe: Folk metal
українська: Фолк-метал
中文: 民谣金属