View of Florence by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking
medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the
Italian Renaissance. According to the
Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically, economically, and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries.
The language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the
Italian language. Almost all the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading ultimately to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold
florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the
Hundred Years War. They similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their
provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome.
Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families.
Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were
popes in the early 16th century:
Leo X and
Catherine de Medici married king
Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.
Marie de' Medici married
Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king
Louis XIII. The Medici reigned as
Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with
Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of
Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole (Faesulae in Latin),
 which was destroyed by
Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the
populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by
Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named originally Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, which was later changed to Florentia ("flowering").
 It was built in the style of an
army camp with the main streets, the
cardo and the
decumanus, intersecting at the present
Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the
Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the
Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre.
In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of
Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare between the
Ostrogoths and the
Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under
Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by
Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with
Lucca as capital. The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and
Fiesole were united in one county.
Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of
Lucca at about 1000 AD. The
Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di
San Miniato al Monte. The exterior of the church was reworked in
Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune", meaning a city state. The city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry (mainly textile industry), and access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community. The Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation (e.g. bill of exchange,
double-entry bookkeeping system) to medieval fairs. This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival
Pisa (defeated by
Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the
mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the
Ordinances of Justice (1293).
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Rise of the Medici
Of a population estimated at 94,000 before the
Black Death of 1348,
 about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's
wool industry: in 1345 Florence was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the
Revolt of the Ciompi. After their suppression, Florence came under the sway (1382–1434) of the
Albizzi family, who became bitter rivals of the Medici.
In the 15th century, Florence was among the largest cities in Europe, considered rich and economically successful. Life was not idyllic for all residents though, among whom there were great disparities in wealth.
Cosimo de' Medici was the first Medici family member to essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast
patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the gente nuova (new people). The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their ascendancy. Cosimo was succeeded by his son
Piero, who was, soon after, succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by
Leonardo da Vinci and
Botticelli. Lorenzo was an accomplished poet and musician and brought composers and singers to Florence, including
Johannes Ghiselin, and
Heinrich Isaac. By contemporary Florentines (and since), he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico).
Following Lorenzo de' Medici's death in 1492, he was succeeded by his son Piero II. When the French king
Charles VIII invaded
northern Italy, Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he realised the size of the
French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the Florentines rebel and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in 1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government.
Savonarola and Machiavelli
Girolamo Savonarola being burnt at the stake in 1498
During this period, the
Girolamo Savonarola had become
prior of the
San Marco monastery in 1490. He was famed for his penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread immorality and attachment to material riches. He blamed the exile of the Medici as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused
Pope Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public. When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and
burned at the stake on the
Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498.
A second individual of unusually acute insight was
Niccolò Machiavelli, whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimisation of political expediency and even malpractice. In other words, Machiavelli was a political thinker, perhaps most renowned for his political handbook, titled
The Prince, which is about ruling and the exercise of power. Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the
Florentine Histories, the history of the city. Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on 16 May 1527. Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the Medici in 1537 became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in 1569
Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling for two centuries. In all Tuscany, only the Republic of Lucca (later a
Duchy) and the Principality of
Piombino were independent from Florence.
18th and 19th centuries
The extinction of the Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of
duke of Lorraine and husband of
Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. It became a
secundogeniture of the
Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the
House of Bourbon-Parma in 1801. From 1801 to 1807 Florence was the capital of the
Napoleonic client state
Kingdom of Etruria. Bourbon-Parma were deposed in December 1807 when Tuscany was annexed by
France. Florence was the
prefecture of the French département of
Arno from 1808 to the fall of
Napoleon in 1814. The Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was restored on the throne of Tuscany at the
Congress of Vienna but finally deposed in 1859. Tuscany became a region of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
Turin as Italy's capital in 1865 and, in an effort to modernise the city, the old market in the Piazza del Mercato Vecchio and many medieval houses were pulled down and replaced by a more formal street plan with newer houses. The Piazza (first renamed Piazza
Vittorio Emanuele II, then
Piazza della Repubblica, the present name) was significantly widened and a large triumphal arch was constructed at the west end. This development was unpopular and was prevented from continuing by the efforts of several British and American people living in the city. A museum recording the destruction stands nearby today.
The country's second capital city was superseded by Rome six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible.
cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine history.
After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population was to triple in the 20th, resulting from growth in tourism, trade,
financial services and industry.
During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943–1944) and was declared an
open city by the retreating Germans after New Zealand troops stormed the Pian dei Cerri hills overlooking the city. The
Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about nine kilometres (5.6 miles) south of the city, British and Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometres east of the centre on the right bank of the Arno). In 1944, the retreating Germans decided to demolish all the bridges along the
Arno linking the district of Oltrarno to the rest of the city, making it difficult for the
British troops to cross. However, at the last moment Charles Steinhauslin, at the time consulate of 26 countries in Florence, convinced the German general in Italy that the
Ponte Vecchio was not to be destroyed due to its historical value.
Instead, an equally historic area of streets directly to the south of the bridge, including part of the
Corridoio Vasariano, was destroyed using mines. Since then the bridges have been restored to their original forms using as many of the remaining materials as possible, but the buildings surrounding the Ponte Vecchio have been rebuilt in a style combining the old with modern design. Shortly before leaving Florence, as they knew that they would soon have to retreat, the Germans executed many
freedom fighters and political opponents publicly, in streets and squares including the Piazza Santo Spirito.
Florence was liberated by the New Zealand Army (2nd New Zealand Division) and South African troops on 4 August 1944.
At the end of
World War II in Europe, in May 1945, the US Army's Information and Educational Branch was ordered to establish an overseas university campus for demobilised American service men and women in Florence, Italy. The first American University for service personnel was established in June 1945 at the School of Aeronautics in Florence, Italy. Some 7,500 soldier-students were to pass through the University during its four one-month sessions (see
G. I. American Universities).
In November 1966, the
Arno flooded parts of the centre, damaging many art treasures. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point.
On 25 May 2016 the
BBC reported that a
sinkhole, thought to have been caused by a bursting of a water pipe, opened up a 200-metre (660 ft) hole on the
Arno river bank in Florence.