Flemish

Official languages of Belgium: Dutch (yellow), French (red) and German (blue). Brussels is a bilingual area where both Dutch and French have an official status.

Flemish (Vlaams),[1][2][3] also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands [ˈbɛlɣis ˈneːdərlɑnts] (About this sound listen)), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium,[4][5][6][7] as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.[8][9][10]

There are four principal Dutch dialects in the Flemish region (Flanders): Brabantian, East Flemish, West Flemish and Limburgish.[11] The latter two are sometimes considered separate (regional) languages.[12] Despite its name, Brabantian is the dominant contributor to the Flemish Dutch tussentaal. The combined region, culture, and people of Dutch-speaking Belgium (which consists of the provinces of West Flanders, East Flanders, Flemish Brabant, Antwerp, and Limburg, and historically of Brussels) has come to be known as "Flemish".[13] "Flemish" is also used to refer to one of the historical languages spoken in the former County of Flanders.[14]

Linguistically and formally, "Flemish" refers to the region, culture and people of (North) Belgium or Flanders. Flemish people speak (Belgian) Dutch in Flanders, the Flemish part of Belgium.

Characteristics

Map showing the dialects spoken in the Benelux: many people in Flanders speak a dialect and the common Flemish, and understand spoken Dutch; in writing, the dialects are hardly used, while Flemish and Dutch are nearly identical in this regard

Dutch is the majority language in northern Belgium, being spoken natively by three-fifths of the population of Belgium. It is one of the three national languages of Belgium, together with French and German, and is the only official language of the Flemish Region.

The various Dutch dialects spoken in Belgium contain a number of lexical and a few grammatical features which distinguish them from the standard Dutch.[15] As in the Netherlands, the pronunciation of Standard Dutch is affected by the native dialect of the speaker.

All Dutch dialect groups spoken in Belgium are spoken in adjacent areas of the Netherlands as well. East Flemish forms a continuum with both Brabantic and West Flemish. Standard Dutch is primarily based on the Hollandic dialect [16] (spoken in the Western provinces of the Netherlands) and to a lesser extent on Brabantian, which is the dominant dialect in Flanders, as well as in the south of the Netherlands.

Tussentaal

The supra-regional, semi-standardized colloquial form (mesolect) of Dutch spoken in Belgium uses the vocabulary and the sound inventory of the Brabantic dialects. It is often called Tussentaal (nl) ("in-between-language" or "intermediate language", intermediate between dialects and standard Dutch).[17]

It is a rather informal variety of speech, which occupies an intermediate position between regional dialects and the standard language. It incorporates phonetic, lexical and grammatical elements not part of the standard language but drawn from local dialects.

It is a relatively new phenomenon that has been gaining popularity during the past decades. Some linguists note that it seems to be undergoing a process of (limited) standardisation[18][19] or that it is evolving into a Koiné language.[20]

Tussentaal is slowly gaining popularity in Flanders because it is used a lot in television dramas and comedies. Often, middle-class characters in a television series will be speaking tussentaal, lower-class characters use the dialect of the location where the show is set, and upper-class characters will speak Standard Dutch.[21] That has given tussentaal the status of normalcy in Flanders. It is slowly being accepted by the general population, but it has met with objections from writers and academics who argue that it dilutes the usage of Standard Dutch.[22] Tussentaal is used in entertainment television but rarely in informative programmes (like the news), which normally use Standard Dutch.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Flämische Sprache
Ænglisc: Flemisc sprǣc
العربية: فلمنكية
brezhoneg: Flandrezeg
Cymraeg: Fflemeg
Esperanto: Flandra lingvo
euskara: Flandriera
Frysk: Flaamsk
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vlaams-ngî
한국어: 플라망어
hrvatski: Flamanski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Vlaams
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐱᓚᒥᔅ
íslenska: Flæmska
kernowek: Flemek
لۊری شومالی: زون فلامانی
latviešu: Flāmu valoda
lietuvių: Flamandų kalba
lumbaart: Flamengh
македонски: Фламански јазик
მარგალური: ფლემიშური ნინა
Nederlands: Vlaams
Nedersaksies: Vlaoms
नेपाल भाषा: डच-फ्लेमिश भाषा
日本語: フラマン語
norsk nynorsk: Flamsk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Flamand tili
Piemontèis: Lenga vlaams
Plattdüütsch: Fläämsch
română: Limba flamandă
Scots: Flemish
Simple English: Flemish language
српски / srpski: Фламански језик
svenska: Flamländska
Türkçe: Flamanca
українська: Фламандська мова
Tiếng Việt: Flemish
West-Vlams: Vlams (Nederlands)
žemaitėška: Flamandu kalba
中文: 弗拉芒语