Flamenco (Spanish pronunciation: [flaˈmeŋko]), in its strictest sense, is an art form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain in the autonomous community of Andalusia. In a wider sense, the term is used to refer to a variety of Spanish musical styles. The oldest record of flamenco music dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso (Akombo 2016, 240–241). Flamenco has been influenced by and associated with the Romani people in Spain; however, its origin and style are uniquely Andalusian (Hayes 2009, 31–37).[1]

The exact origin of flamenco is unknown and the subject of many hypotheses. The most widespread is that flamenco was developed through the cross-cultural interchange between native Andalusians, Romani, Castilians, Moors and Sephardi Jews in Andalusia during the Moorish occupation. (Machin-Autenrieth 2015,[page needed]).[citation needed] Federico García Lorca wrote that the presence of flamenco in Andalusia significantly predates the arrival of Romani people to the region.[2] However, the Diccionario de la lengua española (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) primarily attributes the creation of the style directly to the Spanish Romani.[3]

Flamenco has become popular all over the world, especially the United States and Japan. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies than there are in Spain.[4][5]

On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity (Anon. 2010).


There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term, but no solid evidence for any of them. The word is Spanish for "Flemish" (meaning "native of Flanders", a one-time Spanish possession).[6] The word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century, in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso (1774) (Akombo 2016, 240–241).

One theory, proposed by Andalusian historian Blas Infante, is that the word is derived from the Hispano-Arabic term fellah mengu, meaning "expelled peasant", referring to the Andalusians of Islamic faith and the remaining Moriscos who fled with the Roma newcomers.[7][8]

Another theory is that the Spanish word flamenco is a derivative of the Spanish word, meaning "fire" or "flame". The word flamenco may have been used for fiery behaviour, which could have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers (Ruiz 2007, 165ff).

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Flamenco
aragonés: Flamenco
asturianu: Flamencu
azərbaycanca: Flamenko
Bân-lâm-gú: Flamenco
башҡортса: Фламенко
беларуская: Фламенка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Флямэнка
български: Фламенко
bosanski: Flamenko
brezhoneg: Flamenco
čeština: Flamenco
Cymraeg: Fflamenco
dansk: Flamenco
Deutsch: Flamenco
eesti: Flamenko
Ελληνικά: Φλαμένκο
español: Flamenco
Esperanto: Flamenko
euskara: Flamenko
فارسی: فلامنکو
français: Flamenco
furlan: Flamenco
galego: Flamenco
한국어: 플라멩코
հայերեն: Ֆլամենկո
hrvatski: Flamenco
Bahasa Indonesia: Flamenco
íslenska: Flamenco
italiano: Flamenco
עברית: פלמנקו
Jawa: Flamenco
ქართული: ფლამენკო
қазақша: Фламенко
Kiswahili: Flamenco
kurdî: Flamenko
Latina: Flamencum
latviešu: Flamenko
lietuvių: Flamenko
magyar: Flamenco
മലയാളം: ഫ്ലാമെങ്കൊ
Bahasa Melayu: Flamenco
Nederlands: Flamenco
Nedersaksies: Flamenco
नेपाल भाषा: फ्लामेङ्को
日本語: フラメンコ
norsk: Flamenco
norsk nynorsk: Flamenco
occitan: Flamenco
олык марий: Фламенко
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਫ਼ਲੇਮੇਂਕੋ
پنجابی: فلامنکو
polski: Flamenco
português: Flamenco
română: Flamenco
romani čhib: Flamenko
Runa Simi: Flamenco
русиньскый: Фламенґо
русский: Фламенко
sardu: Flamencu
Scots: Flamenco
sicilianu: Flamencu
Simple English: Flamenco
slovenčina: Flamenco
slovenščina: Flamenko
کوردی: فلامێنکۆ
српски / srpski: Фламенко
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Flamenko
suomi: Flamenco
svenska: Flamenco
Türkçe: Flamenko
українська: Фламенко
اردو: فلامنکو
Tiếng Việt: Flamenco
walon: Flamenco
Winaray: Flamenco
吴语: 弗拉门戈
ייִדיש: פלאמענקא
粵語: 佛蘭明歌
中文: 弗拉明戈