These seven ecumenical councils are:
First Council of Nicaea
||325 (May 20-June 19)
Emperor Constantine I
Hosius of Corduba (and
Arianism, the nature of Christ, celebration of Passover (
ordination of eunuchs, prohibition of kneeling on Sundays and from Easter to Pentecost, validity of
baptism by heretics, lapsed Christians, sundry other matters.
First Council of Constantinople
Timothy of Alexandria,
Meletius of Antioch,
Gregory Nazianzus, and
Nectarius of Constantinople
Holy Spirit, successor to Meletius
Council of Ephesus
||431 (June 22-July 31)
Cyril of Alexandria
Council of Chalcedon
||451 (October 8-November 1)
||A board of government officials and senators, led by the patrician
||The judgments issued at the
Second Council of Ephesus in 449, the alleged offences of Bishop Dioscorus of Alexandria, the relationship between the divinity and humanity of Christ, many disputes involving particular bishops and sees.
Second Council of Constantinople
||553 (May 5-June 2)
Eutychius of Constantinople
Third Council of Constantinople
||680-681 (November 7-September 16)
Patriarch George I of Constantinople
Monothelitism, the human and divine wills of Jesus
Second Council of Nicaea
||787 (September 24-October 23)
Constantine VI and Empress
Patriarch Tarasios of Constantinople,
Pope Adrian I
First Council of Nicaea (325)
Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of
as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic.
, c. 1000).
Emperor Constantine convened this council to settle a controversial issue, the relation between
Jesus Christ and
God the Father. The Emperor wanted to establish universal agreement on it. Representatives came from across the Empire, subsidized by the Emperor. Previous to this council, the bishops would hold local councils, such as the
Council of Jerusalem, but there had been no universal, or ecumenical, council.
The council drew up a creed, the
original Nicene Creed, which received nearly unanimous support. The council's description of "God's only-begotten Son",
Jesus Christ, as of the
same substance with
God the Father became a touchstone of Christian
Trinitarianism. The council also addressed the issue of dating Easter (see
Easter controversy), recognised the right of the see of Alexandria to jurisdiction outside of its own province (by analogy with the jurisdiction exercised by Rome) and the prerogatives of the churches in Antioch and the other provinces
 and approved the custom by which
Jerusalem was honoured, but without the metropolitan dignity.
The Council was opposed by the
Arians, and Constantine tried to reconcile
Arius, after whom Arianism is named, with the Church. Even when Arius died in 336, one year before the death of Constantine, the controversy continued, with various separate groups espousing Arian sympathies in one way or another.
 In 359, a double council of Eastern and Western bishops affirmed a formula stating that the Father and the Son were similar in accord with the scriptures, the crowning victory for Arianism.
 The opponents of Arianism rallied, and the First Council of Constantinople in 381 marked the final victory of Nicene orthodoxy within the Empire, though Arianism had by then spread to the Germanic tribes, among whom it gradually disappeared after the conversion of the
Franks to Christianity in 496.
Constantine commissions Bibles
Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the
Church of Constantinople.
Athanasius (Apol. Const. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for
Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for
canon lists, and that
Codex Vaticanus and
Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the
Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles.
First Council of Constantinople (381)
The council approved what is the current form of the
Nicene Creed as used in most
Oriental Orthodox churches. The
Eastern Orthodox Church uses the council's text but with the verbs expressing belief in the singular: Πιστεύω (I believe) instead of Πιστεύομεν (We believe). The
Latin Rite of the
Catholic Church also uses the singular and, except in
 adds two phrases, Deum de Deo (God from God) and Filioque (and the Son). The form used by the
Armenian Apostolic Church, which is part of
Oriental Orthodoxy, has many more additions.
 This fuller creed may have existed before the Council and probably originated from the baptismal creed of Constantinople.
The council also condemned
 the teaching that there was no human mind or soul in Christ.
 It also granted Constantinople honorary precedence over all churches save Rome.
The council did not include Western bishops or Roman legates, but it was later accepted as ecumenical in the West.
First Council of Ephesus (431)
Theodosius II called the council to settle the Nestorian controversy. Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, opposed use of the term
Theotokos (Greek Η Θεοτόκος, "God-Bearer").
 This term had long been used by orthodox writers, and it was gaining popularity along with devotion to Mary as Mother of God.
 He reportedly taught that there were two separate persons in the incarnate Christ, though whether he actually taught this is disputed.
The council deposed Nestorius, repudiated
Nestorianism, and proclaimed the Virgin
Mary as the
After quoting the
Nicene Creed in its original form, as at the First Council of Nicaea, without the alterations and additions made at the First Council of Constantinople, it declared it "unlawful for any man to bring forward, or to write, or to compose a different (ἑτέραν) Faith as a rival to that established by the holy Fathers assembled with the
Holy Ghost in Nicæa."
Council of Chalcedon (451)
The council repudiated the
Eutychian doctrine of
monophysitism, described and delineated the "
Hypostatic Union" and
two natures of Christ, human and divine; adopted the
Chalcedonian Definition. For those who accept it (Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and most Protestants), it is the Fourth Ecumenical Council (calling the
Second Council of Ephesus, which was rejected by this council, the "
Robber Synod" or "
Before the council
In November 448, a synod at Constantinople condemned Eutyches for unorthodoxy.
 Eutyches, archimandrite (abbot) of a large Constantinopolitan monastery,
 taught that Christ was not
consubstantial with humanity.
In 449, Theodosius II summoned a council at Ephesus, where Eutyches was exonerated and returned to his monastery.
 This council was later overturned by the Council of Chalcedon and labeled "Latrocinium" (i.e., "Robber Council").
Second Council of Constantinople (553)
This council condemned certain Nestorian writings and authors. This move was instigated by Emperor Justinian in an effort to conciliate the monophysite Christians, it was opposed in the West, and the Popes' acceptance of the council caused a major schism.
Prior to the Second Council of Constantinople was a prolonged controversy over the treatment of three subjects, all considered sympathetic to Nestorianism, the heresy that there are two separate persons in the Incarnation of Christ.
 Emperor Justinian condemned the Three Chapters, hoping to appeal to monophysite Christians with his anti-Nestorian zeal.
 Monophysites believe that in the Incarnate Christ there is one nature, not two.
Eastern Patriarchs supported the Emperor, but in the West his interference was resented, and Pope Vigilius resisted his edict on the grounds that it opposed the Chalcedonian decrees.
 Justinian's policy was in fact an attack on Antiochene theology and the decisions of Chalcedon.
 The pope assented and condemned the Three Chapters, but protests in the West caused him to retract his condemnation.
 The emperor called the Second Council of Constantinople to resolve the controversy.
The council, attended mostly by Eastern bishops, condemned the Three Chapters and, indirectly, the Pope Vigilius.
 It also affirmed Constantinople's intention to remain in communion with Rome.
After the council
Vigilius declared his submission to the council, as did his successor,
Pope Pelagius I.
 The council was not immediately recognized as ecumenical in the West, and Milan and Aquileia even broke off communion with Rome over this issue.
 The schism was not repaired until the late 6th century for Milan and the late 7th century for Aquileia.
Emperor Justinian's policy failed to reconcile the Monophysites.
Third Council of Constantinople (680–681)
Third Council of Constantinople (680–681): repudiated
monothelitism, a doctrine that won widespread support when formulated in 638; the Council affirmed that Christ had both human and divine wills.
Quinisext Council (= Fifth-Sixth Council) or Council in
Trullo (692) has not been accepted by the Roman Catholic Church. Since it was mostly an administrative council for raising some local canons to ecumenical status, establishing principles of clerical discipline, addressing the
Biblical canon, without determining matters of doctrine, the
Eastern Orthodox Church does not consider it to be a full-fledged council in its own right, viewing it instead as an extension of the fifth and sixth councils. It gave ecclesiastical sanction to the
Pentarchy as the government of the
state church of the Roman Empire.
Second Council of Nicaea (787)
Second Council of Nicaea (787). In 753, Emperor Constantine V convened the
Synod of Hieria, which declared that images of Jesus misrepresented him and that images of Mary and the saints were idols.
 The Second Council of Nicaea restored the veneration of
icons and ended the first