Finland

Republic of Finland

Anthem: 
Maamme  (Finnish)
Vårt land  (Swedish)
(English: "Our Land")
EU-Finland (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Finland.svg
Location of Finland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Helsinki
60°10′N 24°56′E / 60°10′N 24°56′E / 60.167; 24.933
Official languages
Recognised regional languagesSámi
Religion
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic[1]
• President
Sauli Niinistö
Antti Rinne[2]
LegislatureEduskunta/Riksdagen
Formation
29 March 1809
6 December 1917
27 January – 15 May 1918
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
338,424 km2 (130,666 sq mi) (64th)
• Water (%)
10
Population
• July 2019 estimate
Increase 5,521,158[3] (114th)
• 2017 official
5,513,000[4]
• Density
16/km2 (41.4/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$257 billion[5]
• Per capita
$46,559[5]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$277 billion[5]
• Per capita
$50,068[5]
Gini (2018)Negative increase 25.9[6]
low · 6th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.920[7]
very high · 15th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+358
ISO 3166 codeFI
Internet TLD.fia
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
Interactive map showing land and maritime border of Finland

Finland (Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] (About this soundlisten); Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪnland] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland (About this soundlisten to all)),[note 1] is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Finland's population is 5.52 million (as of half of 2019),[8] the majority of whom live in the central and south of the country and speak Finnish, a Finnic language from the Uralic language family, unrelated to the Scandinavian languages.[9] Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. It is a parliamentary republic of 311 municipalities,[10] and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP.

Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE.[11] Comb Ceramic culture introduced pottery 5200 BCE and Corded Ware culture coincided with the start of agriculture between 3000 and 2500 BCE. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia.[12] From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.[13][14]

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard, supported by Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. In World War II, Finland lost parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo and Petsamo to the Soviet Union.

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and adopted an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994,[15] the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997,[15] and the Eurozone at its inception in 1999.

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the war reparations demanded by the Soviet Union forced Finland to industrialise. The country rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.[16] Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development.[17][18][19][20] In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital[21] and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index,[22] and second in the Global Gender Gap Report.[23] It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019.[24] A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church,[25] and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.

Etymology

The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). The third was found in Gotland. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates back to the 13th century.[26] The name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned at first known time AD 98 (disputed meaning).

Suomi

The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages), this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. Gothic guma, Latin homo) has been suggested, being borrowed as *ćoma. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper, and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape), but these are now considered outdated. Some have suggested common etymology with saame (Sami, a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland), but that theory is uncertain.[27]

The first survived use of word Suomi is in 811 in the Royal Frankish Annals where it is used as a person name connected to a peace treaty.[28][29]

Concept

In the earliest historical sources from the 12th and 13th centuries, the term Finland refers to the coastal region around Turku from Perniö to Uusikaupunki. This region later became known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland. Finland became a common name for the whole country in a centuries-long process that started when the Catholic Church established missionary diocese in Nousiainen in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.[30]

The devastation of Finland during the Great Northern War (1714–1721) and during the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743) caused Sweden to begin carrying out major efforts to defend its eastern half from Russia. These 18th-century experiences created a sense of a shared destiny that when put in conjunction with the unique Finnish language, led to the adoption of an expanded concept of Finland.[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Finlandia
Адыгэбзэ: Финлэнд
адыгабзэ: Финланд
Afrikaans: Finland
Akan: Finland
Alemannisch: Finnland
አማርኛ: ፊንላንድ
Ænglisc: Finnland
Аҧсшәа: Суоми
العربية: فنلندا
aragonés: Finlandia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܝܢܠܢܕ
armãneashti: Finlanda
arpetan: Finlande
অসমীয়া: ফিনলেণ্ড
asturianu: Finlandia
Avañe'ẽ: Hĩlándia
Aymar aru: Phini suyu
azərbaycanca: Finlandiya
تۆرکجه: فنلاند
bamanankan: Finland
Banjar: Pinglandia
Bân-lâm-gú: Hun-lân
Basa Banyumasan: Finlandia
башҡортса: Финляндия
беларуская: Фінляндыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фінляндыя
भोजपुरी: फिनलैंड
Bikol Central: Finlandya
Bislama: Finland
български: Финландия
Boarisch: Finnland
བོད་ཡིག: ཧྥིན་ལན།
bosanski: Finska
brezhoneg: Finland
буряад: Финланд
català: Finlàndia
Чӑвашла: Финлянди
Cebuano: Finland
čeština: Finsko
Chamoru: Finlandia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Finlandia
Chi-Chewa: Finland
chiShona: Finland
chiTumbuka: Finland
corsu: Finlandia
Cymraeg: Y Ffindir
dansk: Finland
davvisámegiella: Suopma
Deitsch: Finland
Deutsch: Finnland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފިންލޭންޑު
dolnoserbski: Finska
डोटेली: फिनल्याण्ड
eesti: Soome
Ελληνικά: Φινλανδία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Finlàndia
español: Finlandia
Esperanto: Finnlando
estremeñu: Finlándia
euskara: Finlandia
eʋegbe: Finland
فارسی: فنلاند
Fiji Hindi: Finland
føroyskt: Finnland
français: Finlande
Frysk: Finlân
Fulfulde: Finland
furlan: Finlande
Gaeilge: An Fhionlainn
Gaelg: Finnlynn
Gagauz: Finlandiya
Gàidhlig: Suòmaidh
galego: Finlandia
ГӀалгӀай: Суомий мохк
贛語: 芬蘭
Gĩkũyũ: Binirandi
گیلکی: فنلاند
ગુજરાતી: ફીનલેંડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: फिनलॅंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fûn-làn
한국어: 핀란드
Hausa: Finland
Hawaiʻi: Pinilana
հայերեն: Ֆինլանդիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Ֆինլանտա
हिन्दी: फ़िनलैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Finska
hrvatski: Finska
Bahasa Hulontalo: Pinlandia
Igbo: Finland
Ilokano: Pinlandia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ফিনল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Finlandia
interlingua: Finlandia
Interlingue: Finland
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓐᓚᓐᑦ
Iñupiak: Finland
isiXhosa: IFinland
isiZulu: IFinlandi
íslenska: Finnland
italiano: Finlandia
עברית: פינלנד
Jawa: Finlan
Kabɩyɛ: Fɛɛlandɩ
kalaallisut: Finlandi
Kapampangan: Pinlandya
къарачай-малкъар: Финляндия
ქართული: ფინეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: فننش
kaszëbsczi: Fińskô
қазақша: Финляндия
kernowek: Pow Finn
Kinyarwanda: Finilande
Kirundi: Finilande
Kiswahili: Ufini
коми: Суоми Му
Kongo: Finlandi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Fenlann
kurdî: Fînlenda
Кыргызча: Финляндия
кырык мары: Финлянди
Ladino: Finlandia
лакку: Пинлянди
لۊری شومالی: فنلاند
latgaļu: Suomeja
Latina: Finnia
latviešu: Somija
Lëtzebuergesch: Finnland
лезги: Финляндия
lietuvių: Suomija
Ligure: Finlandia
Limburgs: Finland
lingála: Finilanda
Lingua Franca Nova: Suomi
Livvinkarjala: Suomi
la .lojban.: gugdrsu,omi
Luganda: Finilandi
lumbaart: Finlandia
magyar: Finnország
मैथिली: फिनल्यान्ड
македонски: Финска
Malagasy: Finlandy
മലയാളം: ഫിൻലാന്റ്
Malti: Finlandja
Māori: Hinerangi
मराठी: फिनलंड
მარგალური: ფინეთი
مازِرونی: فلاند
Bahasa Melayu: Finland
Minangkabau: Finlandia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hŭng-làng
Mirandés: Finlándia
мокшень: Суоми мастор
монгол: Финланд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဖင်လန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Finlandia
Dorerin Naoero: Pinrand
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Finland
Nederlands: Finland
Nedersaksies: Finlaand
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᐃᓇᐣᐟ
नेपाली: फिनल्याण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: फिनल्यान्ड
Napulitano: Finlandia
нохчийн: Финлянди
Nordfriisk: Finlönj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Finland
norsk: Finland
norsk nynorsk: Finland
Nouormand: Fînlande
Novial: Finlande
occitan: Finlàndia
олык марий: Финляндий
Oromoo: Fiinlaandi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Finlandiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਫ਼ਿਨਲੈਂਡ
Pälzisch: Finnland
Pangasinan: Finlande
پنجابی: فنلینڈ
Papiamentu: Finlandia
پښتو: فینلنډ
Patois: Finlan
Перем Коми: Суоми
Picard: Finlinde
Piemontèis: Finlandia
Tok Pisin: Pinlan
Plattdüütsch: Finnland
polski: Finlandia
Ποντιακά: Φινλανδία
português: Finlândia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Finlyandiya
qırımtatarca: Finlandiya
reo tahiti: Finerati
Ripoarisch: Finnland
română: Finlanda
romani čhib: Finland
rumantsch: Finlanda
Runa Simi: Phinsuyu
русиньскый: Фіньско
русский: Финляндия
саха тыла: Финляндия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱯᱷᱤᱱᱞᱟᱸᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Finelani
संस्कृतम्: फिन्लैंड
Sängö: Fëlânde
sardu: Finlàndia
Scots: Finland
Seeltersk: Finlound
Sesotho: Finland
Sesotho sa Leboa: Finland
Setswana: Finland
shqip: Finlanda
sicilianu: Finlandia
Simple English: Finland
سنڌي: فن لينڊ
SiSwati: IFini
slovenčina: Fínsko
slovenščina: Finska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Соумь
ślůnski: Finlandyjo
Soomaaliga: Finland
کوردی: فینلاند
Sranantongo: Finkondre
српски / srpski: Финска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Finska
Sunda: Finlandia
suomi: Suomi
svenska: Finland
Tagalog: Finland
Taqbaylit: Finland
tarandíne: Finlandie
татарча/tatarça: Финляндия
తెలుగు: ఫిన్‌లాండ్
tetun: Finlándia
ትግርኛ: የፊንላንድ
тоҷикӣ: Финланд
lea faka-Tonga: Finilani
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏫᏂᎦᏙᎯ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Finland
Tshivenda: Finland
Türkçe: Finlandiya
Türkmençe: Finlandiýa
Twi: Finland
тыва дыл: Финляндия
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Pinlɛn
удмурт: Финляндия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Finland
українська: Фінляндія
اردو: فن لینڈ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فىنلاندىيە
Vahcuengh: Fwnhlanz
vèneto: Finlandia
vepsän kel’: Suomenma
Tiếng Việt: Phần Lan
Volapük: Suomiyän
Võro: Soomõ
walon: Finlande
文言: 芬蘭
West-Vlams: Finland
Winaray: Finlandya
Wolof: Finlaand
吴语: 芬兰
Xitsonga: Finland
ייִדיש: פינלאנד
Yorùbá: Fínlándì
粵語: 芬蘭
Zazaki: Finlanda
Zeêuws: Finland
žemaitėška: Suomėjė
中文: 芬兰