Final War of the Roman Republic

Final War of the Roman Republic
DateSpring of 32 BC – August (Sextilis) 30 BC

Decisive victory for Octavian

  • Rome is united under Octavian's rule
  • Octavian becomes Augustus
  • Roman Republic transforms into the Roman Empire
Rome annexes Egypt
Roman Republic (supporters of Octavian)Roman supporters of Mark Antony
Ptolemaic Egypt
Commanders and leaders
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Mark Antony 
Cleopatra VII 
198,000 Roman legionaries [1]
260 Roman warships
193,000 mixed Roman and Egyptian soldiers [2]
300 Roman and Egyptian warships
Casualties and losses
All of Antony’s Roman troops either changed loyalty to Octavian or were taken hostage with most of Antony’s fleet destroyed in battle.

The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian. After the Roman Senate declared war on the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, Antony, her lover and ally, betrayed the Roman government and joined the war on Cleopatra's side. After the decisive victory for Octavian at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra and Antony withdrew to Alexandria, where Octavian besieged the city until both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.

Following the end of the war, Octavian brought peace to the Roman state that had been plagued by a century of civil wars. Octavian became the most powerful man in the Roman world and the Senate bestowed upon him the name of Augustus in 27 BC. Octavian, now Augustus, would be the first Roman Emperor and would transform the oligarchic/democratic Republic into the autocratic Roman Empire.

The last Republican Civil War would mark the beginning of the Pax Romana, which remains the longest period of peace and stability that Europe has seen in recorded history.

Reason of "The Final War Of The Roman Republic"

Antony was in Egypt with Cleopatra instead of his wife, who also happened to be Octavian’s sister. Octavian was scheming to find a way to sever ties with Antony, start a war to crush him, kill a potential rival (Caesar and Cleopatra’s son, Caesarion), and take control of the entire Roman world. He did this by cleverly exposing Antony’s will to the Senate, where he read out how Antony had left all his money to his children by Cleopatra, where they would reign as monarchs over kingdoms that he and Cleopatra would leave to them. Romans were scandalized by this type of behavior. Then Antony divorced Octavia to marry Cleopatra.

Octavian (who later became the emperor Augustus) convinced the Senate via a nasty propaganda campaign to start a war against Cleopatra, since they were reluctant to declare war on Antony, as he was a true Roman and the last thing Octavian or the senate needed was a mutiny. Eventually, Octavian chased Antony’s senatorial supporters from Rome, and in 32 B.C.E , the Roman Senate declared war against Cleopatra.

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