Fifth Crusade

Fifth Crusade
Part of the Crusades
Capturing Damiate.jpg
Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt
Date1217–1221
LocationLevant and Egypt
Result

Muslim victory

  • Eight-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders
Belligerents

Crusaders:

Levantine Crusader states:

Balkan Crusader states:

Crusading orders:

Muslim allies:

Muslim forces:

Commanders and leaders
John of Brienne
Bohemond IV
Hugh I
Kaykaus I
Frederick II
Leopold VI
Albert IV
Ludwig I
Louis IV
Otto I
Pedro de Montaigu
Hermann von Salza
Guérin de Montaigu
Andrew II
William I
Phillip II
Henry I of Rodez
Pelagio Galvani
Al-Kamil
Al-Mu'azzam
Al-Mujahid
Al-Muzaffar Mahmud
Al-Aziz Muhammad
Bahramshah
Strength
32,000 menUnknown
Casualties and losses
UnknownUnknown

The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, and an attack against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218, a German army led by Oliver of Cologne, and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland joined the crusade. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied in Anatolia with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm which attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts.

After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe.

Preparations

Pope Innocent III had already planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal bull Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. This was followed by another papal bull, the Ad Liberandam in 1215.[1]

France

The message of the crusade was preached in France by Robert of Courçon; unlike other Crusades, few French knights joined, as they were already fighting the Albigensian Crusade against the heretical Cathar sect in southern France.

In 1215 Pope Innocent III summoned the Fourth Lateran Council, where, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Pope Innocent wanted it to be led by the papacy, as the First Crusade should have been, to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, which had been taken over by the Venetians. Pope Innocent planned for the crusaders to meet at Brindisi in 1216, and prohibited trade with the Muslims, to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply helped pay the expenses of a crusader, but did not go on crusade themselves.

Hungary and Germany

Oliver of Cologne had preached the crusade in Germany, and Emperor Frederick II joined in 1215. Frederick was excommunicated however at this time, and the Knights Templar and others were thereby obliged to withdraw official support from Frederick. After invading Cyprus and Beirut and in now reduced circumstances Frederick prepared nonetheless to carry through a bold plan. Al-Kamil of Egypt was beset by internal rebellion in Syria at this moment, and Frederick gambled on a forward campaign that directly threatened Cairo. Al-Kamil elected to sue for peace therefore and in 1229 ceded most of Jerusalem (except the Dome of the Rock, the Temple Mount and the Al-Aqsa mosque), Nazareth, Bethlehem and Sidon to Frederick. [2]

Georgia

Pope Innocent had managed to secure Georgia's participation in the crusade. Georgia's largely isolationist policies had allowed it to accumulate a powerful army and a very large concentration of knights. However, the reconnaissance force under the Mongols Jebe and Subutai destroyed the entire Georgian army in two successive battles, most notably the Battle of Caucasus Mountain. After the death of Georgian King George IV Lasha, his sister Queen Rusudan wrote to the Pope informing him that Georgia was unable to fulfill its promise to assist in the Crusade because its army had been destroyed by unknown savages. It has been speculated that the oddly passive behavior of the Crusaders in the later years was due to them waiting for the Georgian army to join the fray.[3]

Decades after this Crusade, Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan would take a census of the Kingdom of Georgia to ascertain how many troops it could muster. According to contemporary sources, the kingdom was judged to be able to field nine tumens.[4] A tumen was nominally 10,000 men, but usually averaged 5,000 in reality.[5] If Hulegu's census was accurate, then the kingdom of Georgia in the 13th century was capable of mustering 45,000 soldiers. Had a force this size joined the Fifth Crusade, it would have more than doubled the Crusaders' strength.

Other Languages
asturianu: Quinta cruzada
Ελληνικά: Ε΄ Σταυροφορία
español: Quinta cruzada
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang Salib Kelima
italiano: Quinta crociata
Bahasa Melayu: Perang Salib Kelima
Nederlands: Vijfde Kruistocht
日本語: 第5回十字軍
português: Quinta Cruzada
slovenščina: Peta križarska vojna
српски / srpski: Пети крсташки рат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Peti križarski rat