Farmer, Nicaragua.jpg
A farmer in Nicaragua
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Fields of
Related jobs
Rancher (U.S.), grazier (Australia) or stockman

A farmer[1] (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant, crop, etc.) by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals (as livestock or fish).


Farming has been dated back as far as the Neolithic era. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized labor force by 5000–4000 BCE, and heavily depended on irrigation to grow crops. They relied on three-person teams when harvesting in the spring.[2] The Ancient Egypt farmers farmed and relied and irrigated their water from the Nile.[3]

Animal husbandry, the practice of rearing animals specifically for farming purposes, has existed for thousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in the Middle East and China. The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE.[4]

Advancements in technology

A combine harvester on an English farm

In the U.S. of the 1930s, one farmer could only produce enough food to feed three other consumers. A modern-day farmer produces enough food to feed well over a hundred people. However, some authors consider this estimate to be flawed, as it does not take into account that farming requires energy and many other resources which have to be provided by additional workers, so that the ratio of people fed to farmers is actually smaller than 100 to 1.[5]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Landwirt
العربية: مزارع
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܟܪܐ
asturianu: Llabrador
বাংলা: কৃষক
Bân-lâm-gú: Choh-sit-lâng
башҡортса: Фермер
Bikol Central: Paraoma
བོད་ཡིག: ཞིང་པ་
brezhoneg: Labourer-douar
català: Pagès
čeština: Zemědělec
dansk: Bonde
Deutsch: Landwirt
Ελληνικά: Αγρότης
español: Agricultor
Esperanto: Terkultivisto
فارسی: کشاورز
français: Agriculteur
galego: Labrego
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nùng-mìn
한국어: 농부
हिन्दी: किसान
hrvatski: Poljoprivrednik
Bahasa Indonesia: Petani
íslenska: Bóndi
italiano: Agricoltore
Basa Jawa: Tani
latviešu: Zemnieks
lingála: Molóni
lumbaart: Paisan
magyar: Gazda
മലയാളം: കർഷകൻ
मराठी: शेतकरी
Bahasa Melayu: Petani
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nùng-mìng
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လယ်သမား
Nederlands: Agrariër
नेपाली: कृषक
日本語: 農家
norsk: Bonde
norsk nynorsk: Bonde
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਿਸਾਨ
polski: Rolnik
Runa Simi: Chakra runa
русский: Фермер
संस्कृतम्: कृषीवलः
sicilianu: Agriculturi
سنڌي: آبادگار
slovenčina: Roľníctvo
Soomaaliga: Beeraley
српски / srpski: Poljoprivrednik
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Poljoprivrednik
svenska: Bonde
Tagalog: Magsasaka
தமிழ்: உழவர்
тоҷикӣ: Кишоварз
Türkçe: Çiftçi
українська: Фермер
اردو: کسان
Vahcuengh: Bouxguhnaz
Tiếng Việt: Nông dân
吴语: 农民
ייִדיש: פארמער
粵語: 農夫
中文: 農民