Extradition is an act where one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction, over to their law enforcement. It is a cooperative law enforcement process between the two jurisdictions and depends on the arrangements made between them. Besides the legal aspects of the process, extradition also involves the physical transfer of custody of the person being extradited to the legal authority of the requesting jurisdiction.[1]

Through the extradition process, one sovereign jurisdiction typically makes a formal request to another sovereign jurisdiction ("the requested state"). If the fugitive is found within the territory of the requested state, then the requested state may arrest the fugitive and subject him or her to its extradition process.[2] The extradition procedures to which the fugitive will be subjected are dependent on the law and practice of the requested state.[2]

Between countries, extradition is normally regulated by treaties. Where extradition is compelled by laws, such as among sub-national jurisdictions, the concept may be known more generally as rendition. It is an ancient mechanism, dating back to at least the 13th century BC, when an Egyptian pharaoh, Ramesses II, negotiated an extradition treaty with a Hittite king, Hattusili III.[2]

Extradition treaties or agreements

The consensus in international law is that a state does not have any obligation to surrender an alleged criminal to a foreign state, because one principle of sovereignty is that every state has legal authority over the people within its borders. Such absence of international obligation, and the desire for the right to demand such criminals from other countries, have caused a web of extradition treaties or agreements to evolve. When no applicable extradition agreement is in place, a sovereign may still request the expulsion or lawful return of an individual pursuant to the requested state's domestic law.[2] This can be accomplished through the immigration laws of the requested state or other facets of the requested state's domestic law. Similarly, the codes of penal procedure in many countries contain provisions allowing for extradition to take place in the absence of an extradition agreement.[2] Sovereigns may, therefore, still request the expulsion or lawful return of a fugitive from the territory of a requested state in the absence of an extradition treaty.[2]

No country in the world has an extradition treaty with all other countries; for example, the United States lacks extradition treaties with China, the Russian Federation, Namibia, the United Arab Emirates, North Korea, Bahrain, and many other countries.[3][4] (See Extradition law in the United States.)

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Ekstradisiya
беларуская: Экстрадыцыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Экстрадыцыя
català: Extradició
čeština: Extradice
Cymraeg: Estraddodiad
dansk: Udlevering
español: Extradición
Esperanto: Ekstradicio
euskara: Estradizio
فارسی: استرداد
français: Extradition
Gaeilge: Eiseachadadh
한국어: 범죄인 인도
hrvatski: Izručenje
Bahasa Indonesia: Ekstradisi
italiano: Estradizione
ქართული: ექსტრადიცია
қазақша: Экстрадиция
lietuvių: Ekstradicija
Bahasa Melayu: Ekstradisi
Nederlands: Uitlevering
norsk: Utlevering
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ekstraditsiya
polski: Ekstradycja
português: Extradição
română: Extrădare
русский: Экстрадиция
Simple English: Extradition
српски / srpski: Екстрадиција
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Izručenje
svenska: Utlämning
українська: Екстрадиція
Tiếng Việt: Dẫn độ
粵語: 引渡
中文: 引渡法