Exile

Napoleon's Exile on Saint Helena by Franz Josef Sandmann (de) (1820)
The First Night in Exile - This painting comes from a celebrated series illustrating one of Hinduism's great epics, the Ramayana. It tells the story of prince Rama, who is wrongly exiled from his father’s kingdom, accompanied only by his wife and brother.
Dante in Exile by Domenico Petarlini (es)

To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. It can be a form of punishment and solitude.[1]It is common to distinguish between "internal exile", i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and "external exile", which is deportation outside the country of residence.[2] Although most commonly used to describe an individual situation, the term is also used for groups (especially ethnic or national groups), or for an entire government. Terms such as "diaspora" and "refugee" describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, and "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has been forced to relocate and argue its legitimacy from outside that country.Exile can also be a self-imposed departure from one's homeland. Self-exile is often depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution or legal matters (such as tax or criminal allegations), an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit.Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."

For individuals

Exiled heads of state

In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice.[3]

Avoiding tax or legal matters

A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport,[4] and the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera.[5] In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.S. citizenship before his company's IPO.[6] The dual Brazilian/U.S. citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U.S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States.[7]

In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom.

Avoiding violence or persecution, or in the aftermath of war

Examples include:

Other Languages
العربية: منفى
bosanski: Egzil
català: Exili
čeština: Exil
dansk: Eksil
Deutsch: Exil
eesti: Pagulus
Ελληνικά: Εξορία
español: Exilio
Esperanto: Ekzilo
euskara: Erbeste
فارسی: تبعید
français: Exil
Frysk: Ferballing
galego: Exilio
한국어: 망명
հայերեն: Աքսոր
हिन्दी: निर्वासन
hrvatski: Progonstvo
Bahasa Indonesia: Eksil
italiano: Esilio
עברית: גלות
Latina: Exsilium
latviešu: Trimda
മലയാളം: നാടുകടത്തൽ
Bahasa Melayu: Buangan
Nederlands: Verbanning
日本語: 亡命
norsk: Eksil
norsk nynorsk: Eksil
occitan: Exili
polski: Uchodźstwo
português: Exílio
română: Exil
русский: Изгнание
Simple English: Exile
slovenčina: Exil
српски / srpski: Егзил
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Egzil
suomi: Maanpako
svenska: Exil
українська: Вигнання
Tiếng Việt: Lưu đày
中文: 流亡