Europa Island

Europa Island
Île Europa (French)
Flag of Europa Island
Flag
Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean :1. Bassas da India :2. Europa Island :3. Glorioso Islands :4. Juan de Nova Island :5. Tromelin Island KM=Comoros MG=Madagascar MU=Mauritius MZ=Mozambique RE=Réunion YT=Mayotte

Europa Island (French: Île Europa) is a 28-square-kilometre (11 sq mi) low-lying tropical atoll in the Mozambique Channel, about a third of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique. The island had never been inhabited until 1820, when the French family Rosier moved to it. The island officially became a possession of France in 1897.

The island, garrisoned by a detachment from Réunion, has a weather station and is visited by scientists. Though uninhabited, it is part of the "Scattered Islands" of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands administrative region.

Europa Island was the setting of a 1968 episode of "The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau",[1] partly focusing on the breeding habits of the green sea turtle.

Description

Europa is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) in diameter, with a maximum altitude of 6 metres (20 ft), and has 22.2 kilometres (13.8 mi) of coastline. It is surrounded by coral beaches and a fringing reef and encloses a mangrove lagoon of around 9 square kilometres (3.5 sq mi) and open to the sea on one side.

There are no ports or harbours but anchorage is possible offshore. Its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), contiguous with that of Bassas da India, is 127,300 square kilometres (49,200 sq mi). The airstrip is 1,500 metres (4,920 ft) metres long.

Ecology

Designations
Official nameÎle d’Europa
Designated27 October 2011
Reference no.2073[2]

The island is a nature reserve. Its vegetation consists of dry forest, scrub, Euphorbia, the mangrove swamp, and the remains of a sisal plantation. It is one of the world's largest nesting sites for green sea turtles. It is also home to goats introduced by settlers in the late 18th century.

The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because it supports a large and diverse population of breeding seabirds and other waterbirds. It is the only known breeding site outside Aldabra and Madagascar for Malagasy pond herons. Seabirds include the second largest colony in the western Indian Ocean of great frigatebirds (with up to 1100 pairs), Audubon's shearwaters (up to 100 pairs, probably of the subspecies Puffinus lherminieri bailloni previously considered endemic to the Mascarene Islands), dimorphic egrets and Caspian terns.

The island is also home to an endemic subspecies of white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus europae). There are three species of landbirds present, one of which is an endemic subspecies of the Malagasy white-eye (Zosterops maderaspatanus voeltzkowi).[3] Additionally, the island is also home to its own species of hissing cockroach.[4]

Climate

Climate is affected by the Agulhas Current with water temperatures usually above 30 °C, southeast trade winds during the (austral) winter and occasional cyclones.

Climate data for Europa Island
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
(95.9)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95)
32.4
(90.3)
31.2
(88.2)
29.2
(84.6)
30.0
(86)
29.4
(84.9)
34.0
(93.2)
33.5
(92.3)
34.3
(93.7)
33.4
(92.1)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
30.6
(87.1)
29.2
(84.6)
27.6
(81.7)
26.1
(79)
25.6
(78.1)
26.2
(79.2)
27.1
(80.8)
28.4
(83.1)
29.3
(84.7)
30.2
(86.4)
28.5
(83.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
23.5
(74.3)
22.0
(71.6)
21.6
(70.9)
22.0
(71.6)
22.7
(72.9)
24.2
(75.6)
25.3
(77.5)
26.6
(79.9)
24.7
(76.5)
Average low °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
21.8
(71.2)
19.7
(67.5)
18.4
(65.1)
17.7
(63.9)
17.7
(63.9)
18.7
(65.7)
20.5
(68.9)
21.8
(71.2)
23.1
(73.6)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
19.1
(66.4)
17.3
(63.1)
15.6
(60.1)
12.2
(54)
10.2
(50.4)
10.5
(50.9)
11.1
(52)
11.7
(53.1)
12.4
(54.3)
12.2
(54)
15.0
(59)
10.2
(50.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 130
(5.12)
104
(4.09)
62
(2.44)
28
(1.1)
24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
11
(0.43)
10
(0.39)
9
(0.35)
7
(0.28)
30
(1.18)
129
(5.08)
562
(22.13)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10 8 8 5 5 5 4 3 3 2 4 9 65
Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 78 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 78 79 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 275.9 257.1 275.9 255.0 272.8 246.0 263.5 288.3 276.0 300.7 291.0 272.8 3,275
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.9 9.1 8.9 8.5 8.8 8.2 8.5 9.3 9.2 9.7 9.7 8.8 9.0
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[5]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Europa-eiland
العربية: جزيرة يوروبا
asturianu: Europa (Francia)
azərbaycanca: Avropa adası
беларуская: Еўропа (востраў)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эўропа (востраў)
brezhoneg: Enez Europa
català: Illa Europa
čeština: Europa (ostrov)
Ελληνικά: Νήσος Ευρώπη
español: Isla Europa
Esperanto: Eŭropinsulo
français: Île Europa
galego: Illa Europa
hrvatski: Europa (otok)
Bahasa Indonesia: Pulau Europa
italiano: Europa (isola)
қазақша: Еуропа (арал)
Кыргызча: Европа аралы
latviešu: Eiropa (sala)
lietuvių: Europa (sala)
Nederlands: Europa (eiland)
日本語: ユローパ島
norsk: Europaøya
occitan: Illa Euròpa
português: Ilha Europa
română: Insula Europa
slovenčina: Europa (ostrov)
српски / srpski: Европа (острво)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Otok Europa
svenska: Europa (ö)
українська: Європа (острів)
Tiếng Việt: Đảo Europa
Xitsonga: Europa Island
中文: 欧罗巴岛