Ethnic group

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races.

Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing homogeneity or racial purity as a key membership criterion).

The largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals (Han Chinese being the largest), while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals (numerous indigenous peoples worldwide). Ethnic groups may be subdivided into subgroups or tribes, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely, formerly separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity (such as Han Chinese) and may eventually merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis.

Terminology

Ethnic sari dress in Kerala, India.

The term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos (more precisely, from the adjective ἐθνικός ethnikos,[3] which was loaned into Latin as ethnicus). The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period.

In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan (in the sense of disparate "nations" which did not yet participate in the Christian oikumene), as the Septuagint used ta ethne ("the nations") to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews".[4] The Greek term in early antiquity (Homeric Greek) could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group", mostly translated as "nation, people"; only in Hellenistic Greek did the term tend to become further narrowed to refer to "foreign" or "barbarous" nations in particular (whence the later meaning "heathen, pagan").[5]

In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", and in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s,[6] serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism. The abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character" (first recorded 1953). The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972.[7] Depending on the context that is used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity or synonymously with citizenship (in a sovereign state). The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. The term may also be used with the connotation of something exotic (cf. "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established.

Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of (often mutually overlapping) groups can be identified:

In many cases, more than one aspect determines membership: for instance, Armenian ethnicity can be defined by citizenship of Armenia, native use of the Armenian language, or membership of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Etniese groep
Alemannisch: Ethnie
العربية: مجموعة إثنية
asturianu: Etnia
azərbaycanca: Etnik qrup
Bân-lâm-gú: Cho̍k-kûn
भोजपुरी: नृजातीय समूह
български: Етническа група
bosanski: Etnička grupa
català: Ètnia
čeština: Etnikum
chiShona: Rudzi
Cymraeg: Grŵp ethnig
Deutsch: Ethnie
Ελληνικά: Εθνοτική ομάδα
español: Etnia
Esperanto: Etno
euskara: Etnia
فارسی: قومیت
français: Ethnie
galego: Etnia
ગુજરાતી: વંશીય જૂથ
한국어: 민족
हिन्दी: जातीय समूह
Bahasa Indonesia: Kelompok etnik
íslenska: Þjóðarbrot
italiano: Etnia
עברית: אתניות
ქართული: ეთნოსი
latviešu: Etniskā grupa
lietuvių: Etninė grupė
Livvinkarjala: Etnine joukko
magyar: Etnikum
македонски: Етничка група
მარგალური: ეთნოსი
Bahasa Melayu: Kelompok etnik
Minangkabau: Kalompok etnik
монгол: Ястан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လူမျိုးစု
Nederlands: Etnische groep
日本語: 民族
occitan: Etnia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Etnik guruh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੌਮੀਅਤ
پښتو: توکمډله
português: Grupo étnico
română: Grup etnic
සිංහල: ජාතිය
Simple English: Ethnic group
سنڌي: نسليت
slovenčina: Etnikum
slovenščina: Etnična skupina
српски / srpski: Етничка група
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Etnička grupa
தமிழ்: இனக் குழு
Taqbaylit: Azdar
Türkçe: Etnik grup
اردو: نسلیت
Tiếng Việt: Sắc tộc
文言: 種人
粵語: 族裔
Zazaki: Gruba etnike
中文: 族群