Ethanol

Ethanol
Full structural formula of ethanol
Skeletal formula of ethanol
Ball-and-stick model of ethanol
Space-filling model of ethanol
Names
Pronunciationl/
Systematic IUPAC name
ethanol[1]
Other names
Absolute alcohol
alcohol
cologne spirit
drinking alcohol
ethylic alcohol
EtOH
ethyl alcohol
ethyl hydrate
ethyl hydroxide
ethylol
grain alcohol
hydroxyethane
methylcarbinol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMetB01253
1718733
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard100.000.526
E numberE1510 (additional chemicals)
787
UNII
UN numberUN 1170
Properties
C2H6O
Molar mass46.07 g·mol−1
AppearanceColorless liquid
Density0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[2]
Melting point −114.14 ± 0.03[2] °C (−173.45 ± 0.05 °F; 159.01 ± 0.03 K)
Boiling point 78.24 ± 0.09[2] °C (172.83 ± 0.16 °F; 351.39 ± 0.09 K)
miscible
log P−0.18
Vapor pressure5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa)15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)[3][4]
−33.60·10−6 cm3/mol
1.3611[2]
Viscosity1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[5]
1.69 D[6]
Hazards
Safety data sheetSee: data page
[7]
GHS pictogramsThe flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal wordDanger
H225, H319
P210, P280, P305+351+338
NFPA 704
Flash point14 °C (Absolute)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
7340 mg/kg (oral, rat)
7300 mg/kg (mouse)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) [8]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) [8]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[8]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ethane
Methanol
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
verify (what is ☑Y‹See TfM›☒N ?)
Infobox references

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C
2
H
5
OH
. Its formula can be also written as CH
3
CH
2
OH or C
2
H
5
OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.

Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance used across many different kinds of manufacturing industries. Ethanol is also used as a clean-burning fuel source.

Etymology

Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) for a compound consisting of alkyl group with two carbon atoms (prefix “eth-”), having a single bond between them (infix “-an-”), attached functional group −OH group (suffix “-ol”).[1]

The “eth-” prefix and the qualifier “ethyl” in “ethyl alcohol” originally come from the name “ethyl” assigned in 1834 to the group C
2
H
5
− by Justus Liebig. He coined the word from the German name Aether of the compound C
2
H
5
−O−C
2
H
5
(commonly called “ether” in English, more specifically called “diethyl ether”).[10] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Ethyl is a contraction of the Ancient Greek αἰθήρ (aithḗr, “upper air”) and the Greek word ὕλη (hýlē, “substance”).[11]

The name ethanol was coined as a result of a resolution that was adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature that was held in April 1892 in Geneva, Switzerland.[12]

The term “alcohol” now refers to a wider class of substances in chemistry nomenclature, but in common parlance it remains the name of ethanol. The Oxford English Dictionary claims that it is a medieval loan from Arabic al-kuḥl, a powdered ore of antimony used since antiquity as a cosmetic, and retained that meaning in Middle Latin.[13] The use of “alcohol” for ethanol (in full, “alcohol of wine”) is modern, first recorded 1753, and by the later 18th century referred to “any sublimated substance; distilled spirit” use for “the spirit of wine” (shortened from a full expression alcohol of wine). The systematic use in chemistry dates to 1850.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Etanol
Alemannisch: Ethanol
العربية: إيثانول
aragonés: Etanol
অসমীয়া: ইথান'ল
asturianu: Etanol
azərbaycanca: Etanol
تۆرکجه: اتانول
বাংলা: ইথানল
Bân-lâm-gú: Ethanol
башҡортса: Этанол
беларуская: Этанол
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Этаноль
български: Етанол
Boarisch: Ethanoi
bosanski: Etanol
brezhoneg: Etanol
català: Etanol
Cebuano: Etanol
čeština: Ethanol
Cymraeg: Ethanol
dansk: Ætanol
Deutsch: Ethanol
eesti: Etanool
Ελληνικά: Αιθανόλη
español: Etanol
Esperanto: Etanolo
euskara: Etanol
فارسی: اتانول
Fiji Hindi: Ethanol
français: Éthanol
Frysk: Etanol
Gaeilge: Eatánól
galego: Etanol
ગુજરાતી: ઇથેનોલ
한국어: 에탄올
հայերեն: Էթիլ սպիրտ
हिन्दी: इथेनॉल
hrvatski: Etanol
Ilokano: Etanol
Bahasa Indonesia: Etanol
íslenska: Etanól
italiano: Etanolo
עברית: אתנול
Basa Jawa: Étanol
ქართული: ეთანოლამიდი
қазақша: Этил спирті
Kiswahili: Ethanoli
Latina: Ethanol
latviešu: Etanols
Lëtzebuergesch: Ethanol
лезги: Этанол
lietuvių: Etanolis
Limburgs: Ethanol
magyar: Etanol
македонски: Етанол
മലയാളം: എഥനോൾ
मराठी: इथेनॉल
Bahasa Melayu: Etanol
монгол: Этанол
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီသနောလ်
Nederlands: Ethanol
नेपाल भाषा: इथानोल
日本語: エタノール
Nordfriisk: Etanool
norsk: Etanol
norsk nynorsk: Etanol
occitan: Etanòl
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Etil spirti
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਈਥੇਨੋਲ
پنجابی: ایتھانول
پښتو: اېتنول
polski: Etanol
português: Etanol
română: Etanol
Runa Simi: Ethanul
русский: Этанол
саха тыла: Этанол
Scots: Ethanol
Seeltersk: Ethanol
shqip: Etanoli
Simple English: Ethanol
slovenčina: Etanol
slovenščina: Etanol
کوردی: ئێتانۆل
српски / srpski: Етанол
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Etanol
suomi: Etanoli
svenska: Etanol
தமிழ்: எத்தனால்
татарча/tatarça: Этанол
тоҷикӣ: Этанол
Türkçe: Etanol
українська: Етанол
اردو: ایتھنول
vepsän kel’: Etilspirt
Tiếng Việt: Etanol
文言: 乙醇
Winaray: Etanol
吴语: 乙醇
ייִדיש: עטאנאל
粵語: 乙醇
žemaitėška: Etanuolis
中文: 乙醇