Republic of Estonia
and largest city
Tallinn a 59°25′N 24°45′E / 59°25′N 24°45′E / 59.417; 24.750 Official language Estonian Ethnic groups Demonym(s) Estonian Government Unitary parliamentary republic Kersti Kaljulaid Jüri Ratas Legislature Riigikogu Independence 12 April 1917 24 February 1918 2 February 1920 1940–1991 20 August 1991 1 May 2004 Area
45,227 km  2 (17,462 sq mi) ( ) 129th d
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
1,324,820 (  ) 153rd
• 2011 census
28/km 2 (72.5/sq mi) ( ) 149th GDP ( ) PPP 2019 estimate
$46.590 billion 
• Per capita
$35,717 (  ) 43rd GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
$31.179 billion 
• Per capita
$23,514 (  ) 37th Gini (2018) 30.6  medium HDI (2017) 0.871  · very high 30th Currency ( Euro ) ( € ) EUR Time zone ( +2 UTC ) EET ( +3 UTC ) EEST Driving side right Calling code +372 ISO 3166 code EE Internet TLD .ee e Estonia ( : Estonian Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (), officially the ) listen Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik ), is a country on the eastern coast of the in Baltic Sea . It is bordered to the north by the Northern Europe with Gulf of Finland on the other side, to the west by the Finland with Baltic Sea on the other side, to the south by Sweden (343 km), and to the east by Latvia and Lake Peipus (338.6 km). Russia The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,  covering a total area of 45,227 km  2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km 2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km 2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a . The official language of the country, humid continental climate , is the second-most-spoken Estonian . Finnic language
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C.
were some of the last European pagans to be Ancient Estonians , following the Christianized in the Livonian Crusade . After centuries of successive rule by 13th century , Germans , Danes , Swedes and Poles , a distinct Russians began to emerge in the Estonian national identity and early 19th . This culminated in 20th centuries in 1920 after a brief independence from Russia at the end of War of Independence . Initially democratic, subsequent to the World War I , Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Great Depression . During Era of Silence (1939–1945), Estonia was World War II by the repeatedly contested and occupied and Soviet Union , ultimately being incorporated into the Germany . After the loss of its former de facto independence, Estonia's was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the de jure state continuity . In 1987 the peaceful government-in-exile began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of Singing Revolution de facto independence on . 20 August 1991
of Estonia is a democratic sovereign state unitary divided into fifteen parliamentary republic . Its capital and largest city is counties . With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least populous members of the Tallinn , the European Union , Eurozone , the OECD , Schengen Area , and from 2020, the NATO . United Nations Security Council 
Estonia is a
with an advanced, developed country that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. high-income economy The country ranks very high in the  , Human Development Index and performs favourably in measurements of  , economic freedom , education, civil liberties and  (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). press freedom Estonian citizens are provided with  , universal health care  , free education and the longest-paid  in the OECD. maternity leave One of the world's most digitally advanced societies,  in 2005, Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the  , and in 2014, the first state to provide Internet . e-residency
the oldest known Estonian language of the Estonians was endonym maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians was called  Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm".
One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the
, a people described by the Aesti historian Roman in his Tacitus (ca. 98 AD). Germania The historic  Aesti were allegedly , whereas the modern Estonians are Baltic people . The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south.
refer to an area called sagas Eistland, as the country is still called in , with close parallels to the Danish, German, Icelandic , Dutch and Swedish terms Norwegian Estland for the country. Early and other ancient versions of the name include Latin Estia and Hestia.
Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921;  the country was admitted to the  under this name, retained in this orthography in the international organization's records until December 1926. League of Nations
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ:
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: