Estonia

Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik  (Estonian)
Anthem: 
Location of  Estonia  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Estonia  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Tallinn
59°25′N 24°45′E / 59°25′N 24°45′E / 59.417; 24.750
Official languagesEstonian
Ethnic groups (2018[1])
DemonymEstonian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Kersti Kaljulaid
Jüri Ratas
LegislatureRiigikogu
Independence
12 April 1917
24 February 1918
2 February 1920
1940–1991
20 August 1991
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
45,227[2] km2 (17,462 sq mi) (129thd)
• Water (%)
4.45%
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 1,319,133[3] (151st)
• 2011 census
1,294,455[4]
• Density
28/km2 (72.5/sq mi) (188th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$44.177 billion[5]
• Per capita
$33,842[5] (43rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$30.821 billion[5]
• Per capita
$23,610[5] (40th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 32.7[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.871[7]
very high · 30th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Drives on theright
Calling code+372
ISO 3166 codeEE
Internet TLD.eee
  1. According to the Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language.[8] In southern counties, Võro and Seto are spoken along with it. Russian is spoken in parts of Ida-Virumaa and Tallinn.
  2. Including 5.4% Võros and 0.93% Setos.[9]
  3. 47,549 km2 (18,359 sq mi) were defined according to the Treaty of Tartu in 1920 between Estonia and Soviet Russia (then communist Bolshevik revolutionary government before 1923 organization of USSR). Today, the remaining 2,323 km2 (897 sq mi) are part of Russia/Russian Federation. The ceded areas include most of the former Petseri County and areas behind the Narva river including Ivangorod (Jaanilinn).[10] Pechory remains under Russian administration.
  4. Also .eu, shared with other member states of the European Union.

Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti] (About this sound listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden to the west (Scandinavia to the far west and north), to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km).[11] The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,[12] covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from the Russian Empire in 1918 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule[13] since 1934 during the Era of Silence and the Great Depression. During World War II (1939-1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by the Estonian government-in-exile, which was recognized by much of the Western World throughout the Cold War (1945-1991). In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

Since independence, Estonia has been a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU.[14] Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index,[7] and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education,[15] and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007).[16] Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care,[17] free education,[18] and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD.[19] One of the world's most digitally advanced societies,[20] in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.

Etymology

In the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas,[21] meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm".

One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (ca. 98 AD).[22] The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being farther south.

Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, and close to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian term Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia.[23]

Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921;[24][25] the country was admitted to the League of Nations under this name, and it continued in the international organization's records until December 1926.[26]

Other Languages
Acèh: Èstonia
Адыгэбзэ: Эстониэ
адыгабзэ: Эстоние
Afrikaans: Estland
Alemannisch: Estland
አማርኛ: ኤስቶኒያ
Ænglisc: Estland
العربية: إستونيا
aragonés: Estonia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܣܛܘܢܝܐ
armãneashti: Estonia
arpetan: Èstonie
asturianu: Estonia
Avañe'ẽ: Etóña
авар: Эстония
azərbaycanca: Estoniya
تۆرکجه: ایستونی
bamanankan: Estonia
Bân-lâm-gú: Estonia
башҡортса: Эстония
беларуская: Эстонія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эстонія
भोजपुरी: इस्टोनिया
Bikol Central: Estonya
Bislama: Estonia
български: Естония
Boarisch: Estland
bosanski: Estonija
brezhoneg: Estonia
буряад: Эстони
català: Estònia
Чӑвашла: Эстони
Cebuano: Estonia
čeština: Estonsko
Chamoru: Estonia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Estonia
Chi-Chewa: Estonia
chiShona: Estonia
chiTumbuka: Estonia
corsu: Estonia
Cymraeg: Estonia
dansk: Estland
davvisámegiella: Estteeana
Deitsch: Eschdooni
Deutsch: Estland
dolnoserbski: Estniska
eesti: Eesti
Ελληνικά: Εσθονία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Estògna
español: Estonia
Esperanto: Estonio
estremeñu: Estónia
euskara: Estonia
eʋegbe: Estonia
فارسی: استونی
Fiji Hindi: Estonia
føroyskt: Estland
français: Estonie
Frysk: Estlân
Fulfulde: Estoniya
furlan: Estonie
Gaeilge: An Eastóin
Gaelg: Yn Estaan
Gagauz: Estoniya
Gàidhlig: Eastòinia
galego: Estonia
ગુજરાતી: ઈસ્ટોનિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: एस्टोनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Estonia
хальмг: Эстонин Орн
한국어: 에스토니아
Hausa: Istoniya
Hawaiʻi: ʻEsetonia
հայերեն: Էստոնիա
हिन्दी: एस्टोनिया
hornjoserbsce: Estiska
hrvatski: Estonija
Ido: Estonia
Igbo: Estoniya
Ilokano: Estonia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: এস্তোনিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Estonia
interlingua: Estonia
Interlingue: Estonia
Ирон: Эстони
isiZulu: I-Estoniya
íslenska: Eistland
italiano: Estonia
עברית: אסטוניה
Basa Jawa: Éstonia
kalaallisut: Estlandi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಎಸ್ಟೊನಿಯ
Kapampangan: Estonia
къарачай-малкъар: Эстония
ქართული: ესტონეთი
kaszëbsczi: Estoniô
қазақша: Эстония
kernowek: Estoni
Kinyarwanda: Esitoniya
Kiswahili: Estonia
коми: Эстония
Kongo: Estoni
Kreyòl ayisyen: Estoni
kurdî: Estonya
Кыргызча: Эстония
кырык мары: Эстони
Ladino: Estonia
лезги: Эстония
لۊری شومالی: ئستونی
latgaļu: Igauneja
Latina: Estonia
latviešu: Igaunija
Lëtzebuergesch: Estland
lietuvių: Estija
Ligure: Estònia
Limburgs: Esland
lingála: Estonia
Livvinkarjala: Estounii
la .lojban.: estis
Luganda: Estonia
lumbaart: Estonia
magyar: Észtország
मैथिली: इस्टोनिया
македонски: Естонија
Malagasy: Estonia
മലയാളം: എസ്റ്റോണിയ
Malti: Estonja
Māori: Etonia
მარგალური: ესტონეთი
مصرى: استونيا
مازِرونی: استونی
Bahasa Melayu: Estonia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Estonia
Mirandés: Stónia
мокшень: Эсти мастор
монгол: Эстон
Dorerin Naoero: Etoniya
Nederlands: Estland
Nedersaksies: Estlaand
नेपाली: इस्टोनिया
नेपाल भाषा: इस्टोनिया
日本語: エストニア
Napulitano: Estonia
нохчийн: Эстони
Nordfriisk: Estlönj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Estonya
norsk: Estland
norsk nynorsk: Estland
Nouormand: Estonnie
Novial: Estonia
occitan: Estònia
олык марий: Эстоний
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଏସ୍ତୋନିଆ
Oromoo: Istooniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Estoniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਸਤੋਨੀਆ
Pangasinan: Estoniya
پنجابی: اسٹونیا
Papiamentu: Estonia
Patois: Estuonia
Перем Коми: Эстму
Picard: Éstonie
Piemontèis: Estònia
Tok Pisin: Estonia
Plattdüütsch: Eestland
polski: Estonia
Ποντιακά: Εσθονία
português: Estónia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Estoniya
qırımtatarca: Estoniya
Ripoarisch: Estland
română: Estonia
Romani: Estoniya
Runa Simi: Istunya
русиньскый: Естонія
русский: Эстония
саха тыла: Эстония
Gagana Samoa: Esitonia
संस्कृतम्: एस्टोनिया
sardu: Estònia
Scots: Estonie
Seeltersk: Estlound
Sesotho: Estonia
shqip: Estonia
sicilianu: Estonia
Simple English: Estonia
سنڌي: اسٽونيا
SiSwati: IWestoniya
slovenčina: Estónsko
slovenščina: Estonija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єсть
ślůnski: Estůńijo
Soomaaliga: Estoniya
کوردی: ئیستۆنیا
Sranantongo: Estlenikondre
српски / srpski: Естонија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Estonija
Basa Sunda: Éstonia
suomi: Viro
svenska: Estland
Tagalog: Estonia
Taqbaylit: Isṭunya
tarandíne: Estonie
татарча/tatarça: Эстония
తెలుగు: ఎస్టోనియా
tetun: Estónia
тоҷикӣ: Эстония
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎡᏍᏙᏂᏯ
Tshivenda: Estonia
Türkçe: Estonya
Türkmençe: Estoniýa
Twi: Estonia
удмурт: Эстония
українська: Естонія
اردو: استونیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئېستونىيە
Vahcuengh: Estonia
vèneto: Estonia
vepsän kel’: Estinma
Tiếng Việt: Estonia
Volapük: Lestiyän
Võro: Eesti
文言: 愛沙尼亞
West-Vlams: Estland
Winaray: Estonya
Wolof: Estooni
吴语: 愛沙尼亞
Xitsonga: Estonia
ייִדיש: עסטלאנד
Yorùbá: Estóníà
粵語: 愛沙尼亞
Zazaki: Estonya
Zeêuws: Estland
žemaitėška: Estėjė
中文: 爱沙尼亚
डोटेली: इस्टोनिया
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛsɩtoonii
Lingua Franca Nova: Esti