Republic of Estonia Capital and largest city Tallinn 59°25′N 24°45′E / 59°25′N 24°45′E / 59.417; 24.750 Official languages Estonian Ethnic groups (2018 )  Demonym Estonian Government Unitary parliamentary republic Kersti Kaljulaid Jüri Ratas Legislature Riigikogu Independence 12 April 1917 24 February 1918 2 February 1920 1940–1991 20 August 1991 1 May 2004 Area
45,227 km  2 (17,462 sq mi) ( ) 129th d
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
1,319,133 (  ) 151st
• 2011 census
28/km 2 (72.5/sq mi) ( ) 188th GDP ( ) PPP 2018 estimate
$44.177 billion 
• Per capita
$33,842 (  ) 43rd GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
$30.821 billion 
• Per capita
$23,610 (  ) 40th Gini (2016) 32.7  medium HDI (2017) 0.871  · very high 30th Currency ( Euro ) ( € ) EUR Time zone ( +2 UTC ) EET ( +3 UTC ) EEST Drives on the right Calling code +372 ISO 3166 code EE Internet TLD .ee e Estonia ( : Estonian Eesti [ˈeːsti] (), officially the ) listen Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik ), is a in sovereign state . It is bordered to the north by the Northern Europe with Gulf of Finland on the other side, to the west by the Finland with Baltic Sea to the west ( Sweden to the far west and north), to the south by Scandinavia (343 km), and to the east by Latvia and Lake Peipus (338.6 km). Russia The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,  covering a total area of 45,227 km  2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km 2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km 2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a . The official language of the country, humid continental climate , is the second most spoken Estonian . Finnic language
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C.
were some of the last European pagans to be Ancient Estonians , following the Christianized in the Livonian Crusade . After centuries of successive rule by 13th century , Germans , Danes , Swedes and Poles , a distinct Russians began to emerge the Estonian national identity and early 19th . This culminated in 20th centuries in 1918 after a brief independence from the Russian Empire at the end of War of Independence . Initially democratic, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule World War I since 1934 during the  and the Era of Silence . During Great Depression (1939-1945), Estonia was World War II by the repeatedly contested and occupied and Soviet Union , ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Nazi Germany . After the loss of its Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic de facto independence, Estonia's was preserved by the de jure state continuity , which was recognized by much of the Western World throughout the Estonian government-in-exile (1945-1991). In 1987 the peaceful Cold War began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of Singing Revolution de facto independence on . 20 August 1991
Since independence, Estonia has been a democratic
unitary divided into fifteen parliamentary republic . Its capital and largest city is counties . With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the Tallinn since joining in 2004, the economic monetary European Union , Eurozone , Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , and of the Western military alliance of the Schengen Area (NATO). It is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization with an advanced, developed country that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. high-income economy Estonia ranks very high in the  , Human Development Index and performs favourably in measurements of  , economic freedom , education, civil liberties and  (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). press freedom Estonian citizens are provided with  , universal health care  , free education and the longest-paid  in the OECD. maternity leave One of the world's most digitally advanced societies,  in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the  , and in 2014 the first state to provide Internet . e-residency
, the oldest known Estonian language of the Estonians was endonym , maarahvas meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians was called  Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm".
One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the
, a people described by the Aesti historian Roman in his Tacitus (ca. 98 AD). Germania The historic  Aesti were allegedly , whereas the modern Estonians are Baltic people . The geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being farther south.
refer to a land called sagas Eistland, as the country is still called in , and close to the Danish, German, Icelandic , Dutch and Swedish term Norwegian Estland for the country. Early and other ancient versions of the name are Latin Estia and Hestia.
Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921;  the country was admitted to the  under this name, and it continued in the international organization's records until December 1926. League of Nations
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ:
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: