Enver Hoxha

Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha (portrait).jpg
First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania
In office
8 November 1941 – 11 April 1985
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byRamiz Alia
22nd Prime Minister of Albania
In office
22 October 1944 – 19 July 1954
PresidentOmer Nishani
Haxhi Lleshi
DeputyMyslim Peza
Koçi Xoxe
Mehmet Shehu
Preceded byIbrahim Biçakçiu
Succeeded byMehmet Shehu
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
22 March 1946 – 23 July 1953
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byOmer Nishani
Succeeded byBehar Shtylla
Personal details
Enver Halil Hoxha

(1908-10-16)16 October 1908
Ergiri (Gjirokastër), Janina Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Died11 April 1985(1985-04-11) (aged 76)
Tirana, Albania
Cause of deathVentricular fibrillation
Resting placePeople's Cemetery, Tirana, Albania
Political partyParty of Labour of Albania
Nexhmije Xhuglini
(m. 1945; his death 1985)
Alma materUniversity of Montpellier
Free University of Brussels

Enver Halil Hoxha (ɑː/;[1] Albanian: [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa] (About this soundlisten); 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985)[2] was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well.

Born in Gjirokastër in 1908, Hoxha became a teacher in grammar school in 1936. Following Italy's invasion of Albania, he joined the Party of Labour of Albania at its creation in 1941. Hoxha was elected First Secretary in March 1943 at the age of 34. The Yugoslav Partisans assisted the Albanians. Less than two years after the liberation of the country, the monarchy was abolished, King Zog was deposed and Hoxha rose to power as the head of state of Albania.

"40 Years of Socialist Albania", a socialist period Albanian publication from 1984 describes how during his four-decade rule, he focused on rebuilding the country, which was left in ruins after World War II, building Albania's first railway line, raising the adult literacy rate from 5% to 98%, wiping out epidemics, electrifying the country and leading Albania towards becoming agriculturally self-sufficient.[3][4] However, detractors criticize him for a series of political repressions which included the establishment and use of forced labor camps, extrajudicial killings and executions that targeted and eliminated anti-communists, a large number of which was carried out by the Sigurimi secret police.

Hoxha's government was characterized by his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism from the mid-1970s onwards. After his break with Maoism in the 1976–1978 period, numerous Maoist parties around the world declared themselves Hoxhaist. The International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle) is the best-known association of these parties today.

Early life

The house where Hoxha grew up in Gjirokastër

Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania (then a part of the Ottoman Empire), the son of Halil Hoxha, a Muslim Tosk cloth merchant who travelled widely across Europe and the United States, and Gjylihan (Gjylo) Hoxha née Çuçi.

The Hoxha family was attached to the Bektashi Order; in 1916 his father brought him to seek the blessing of Baba Selim of the Zall Teqe.[5]

After the maktab, he followed his studies in the city senior high school "Liria". He started his studies at the Gjirokastër Lyceum in 1923. After the lyceum was closed, thanks to the intervention of Eqrem Libohova[6] Hoxha was awarded a state scholarship for the continuation of his studies in Korçë, at the French language Albanian National Lyceum until 1930.[7]

Enver Hoxha at age 18

In 1930, Hoxha went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a state scholarship for the faculty of natural science. He never took an exam staying four years in Montpellier, against the Albanian laws of the time. He never returned the scholarship. He later went to Paris, where he presented himself to anti-Zogist immigrants as the brother-in-law of Bahri Omari.[8]

In the years 1935 to 1936, he was employed as a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels. After returning to Albania, he worked as a contract teacher in the Gymnasium of Tirana. Hoxha taught morals in the Korça Liceum from 1937 to 1939 and also served as the caretaker of the school library.[8]

On 7 April 1939, Albania was invaded by Fascist Italy.[9] The Italians established a puppet government, the Albanian Kingdom (1939–43), under Shefqet Vërlaci.[10] Hoxha was indifferent regarding the invasion. In the summer of 1939 he went to Italy on vacation. At the end of 1939, he was transferred to the Gjirokastra Gymnasium, but he soon returned to Tirana. He was helped by his best friend, Esat Dishnica, who introduced Hoxha to Dishnica's cousin Ibrahim Biçakçiu. Hoxha started to sleep in Biçakçiu's tobacco factory "Flora", and after a while Dishnica opened a shop with the same name, where Hoxha started to work.[11] He was a sympathizer of Korça's Communist Group.[12]

Other Languages
العربية: أنور خوجة
armãneashti: Enver Hogea
asturianu: Enver Hoxha
azərbaycanca: Ənvər Xoca
башҡортса: Әнүәр Ходжа
беларуская: Энвер Ходжа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Энвэр Ходжа
български: Енвер Ходжа
Boarisch: Enver Hoxha
bosanski: Enver Hoxha
brezhoneg: Enver Hoxha
català: Enver Hoxha
čeština: Enver Hodža
Cymraeg: Enver Hoxha
Deutsch: Enver Hoxha
Ελληνικά: Ενβέρ Χότζα
español: Enver Hoxha
Esperanto: Enver Hoĝa
euskara: Enver Hoxha
فارسی: انور خوجه
français: Enver Hoxha
Gaeilge: Enver Hoxha
galego: Enver Hoxha
한국어: 엔베르 호자
հայերեն: Էնվեր Խոջա
hrvatski: Enver Hoxha
Bahasa Indonesia: Enver Hoxha
íslenska: Enver Hoxha
italiano: Enver Hoxha
ქართული: ენვერ ხოჯა
қазақша: Энвер Ходжа
kurdî: Enver Hoxha
لۊری شومالی: انور خوجە
Latina: Enver Hoxha
latviešu: Envers Hodža
magyar: Enver Hoxha
македонски: Енвер Хоџа
Malagasy: Enver Hoxha
മലയാളം: എൻവർ ഹോജ
مازِرونی: انور خوجه
Bahasa Melayu: Enver Hoxha
Nederlands: Enver Hoxha
norsk nynorsk: Enver Hoxha
occitan: Enver Hoxha
polski: Enver Hoxha
português: Enver Hoxha
română: Enver Hodja
русский: Ходжа, Энвер
Simple English: Enver Hoxha
slovenčina: Enver Hoxha
slovenščina: Enver Hoxha
српски / srpski: Енвер Хоџа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Enver Hoxha
svenska: Enver Hoxha
Tagalog: Enver Hoxha
Türkçe: Enver Hoca
українська: Енвер Ходжа
Tiếng Việt: Enver Hoxha
粵語: 霍查