Entheogen

Three short green plants in a pot filled with soil. There are many oval-shaped green leaves and no flowers.
Salvia researcher Griffith said the intensity of the experience creates a dysphoria that causes people not to return to the drug. [1]
Mazatec people performing a Salvia ritual dance in Huautla de Jimenez

An entheogen is any psychoactive substance that induces a spiritual experience and is aimed at spiritual development. [2] This terminology is often chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs. For example, entheogens are used by curanderos to heal people but also by malevolent sorcerers to allegedly "steal" their energy. [3]

The religious, shamanic, or spiritual significance of entheogens is well established in anthropological and modern contexts; entheogens have traditionally been used to supplement many diverse practices geared towards achieving transcendence, including white and black magic, sensory deprivation, divinatory, meditation, yoga, prayer, trance, rituals, chanting, hymns like peyote songs, and drumming. In the 1960s the hippie movement escalated its use to psychedelic art, binaural beats, sensory deprivation tanks, music, and rave parties.

History

Entheogens have been used by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Some countries have legislation that allows for traditional entheogen use. However, in the mid-20th century, after the discovery of LSD, and the intervention of psychedelic therapy, the term entheogen, invented in 1979, later became an umbrella term used to include artificial drugs, alternative medical treatment, and spiritual practices, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure.

Ancient times

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Flowering San Pedro, an entheogenic cactus that has been used for over 3,000 years. [4] Today the vast majority of extracted mescaline is from columnar cacti, not vulnerable peyote. [5]

Entheogens have been used in a ritualized context for thousands of years.

R. Gordon Wasson and Giorgio Samorini have proposed several examples of the cultural use of entheogens that are found in the archaeological record. [6] [7] Evidence for the first use of entheogens may come from Tassili, Algeria, with a cave painting of a mushroom-man, dating to 8000 BP.[ citation needed] Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.[ citation needed] [8]

1950s – present

Laboratory synthetic mescaline. Mescaline was the first (1887) psychedelic compound to be extracted and isolated from nature (from peyote). [9]

With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from the aforementioned plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these respective organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol.

Semi-synthetic (e.g., LSD) and synthetic drugs (e.g., DPT and 2C-B used by the Sangoma) have also been developed. Alexander Shulgin developed hundreds of entheogens in PiHKAL and TiHKAL. Most of the drugs in PiHKAL are synthetic.

Religious movements

Entheogens used by movements includes biotas like peyote ( Neo-American Church), extracts like Ayahuasca ( Santo Daime, União do Vegetal), the semi-synthetic drug LSD ( Neo-American Church), and synthetic drugs like DPT ( Temple of the True Inner Light) and 2C-B ( Sangoma [10]).

Both Santo Daime and União do Vegetal now have members and churches throughout the world.

2C-B is an entactogen commonly used at public places, like rave parties.

Psychedelic therapy

Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, and 2C-i, primarily to assist psychotherapy.

MAPS has pursued a number of other research studies examining the effects of psychedelics administered to human subjects. These studies include, but are not limited to, studies of Ayahuasca, DMT, ibogaine, ketamine, LSA, LSD, MDE, MDMA, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, Salvia divinorum and conducted multi-drug studies as well as cross cultural and meta-analysis research. [11]

Other Languages
български: Ентеоген
català: Enteogen
čeština: Entheogen
Deutsch: Entheogen
Ελληνικά: Ενθεογόνο
español: Enteógeno
français: Enthéogène
italiano: Enteogeno
עברית: אנתאוגן
latviešu: Enteogēni
lietuvių: Enteogenas
Nederlands: Entheogeen
norsk: Enteogen
polski: Enteogeny
português: Enteógeno
русский: Энтеоген
slovenčina: Enteogén
српски / srpski: Ентеоген
suomi: Enteogeeni
svenska: Enteogen
Tagalog: Entheogen
Türkçe: Entojen