England

England
Flag of England
Anthem:  Various proposed
Predominantly " God Save the Queen"
Location of  England  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the United Kingdom  (green)
Location of  England  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom  (green)

Status Country
Capital
and largest city
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500; -0.117
National language English
Regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups ( 2011)
Religion Church of England
Demonym English
Government Part of a constitutional monarchy
•  Monarch
Elizabeth II
Parliament of the United Kingdom
•  House of Commons 533 MPs (of 650)
Legislature UK Parliament [a]
Establishment
5th–6th century
10th century
1 May 1707
Area
• Land
130,279 km2 (50,301 sq mi) [2]
Population
• 2016 estimate
Increase 55,268,100
• 2011 census
53,012,456
• Density
424.3/km2 (1,098.9/sq mi) [3]
GVA 2015 estimate
 • Total £1.43 trillion($2.06 trillion, PPP [4]) [5]
 • Per capita £26,159 ($37,747, PPP [4]) [5]
Currency Pound sterling ( GBP£)
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time ( UTC⁠)
• Summer ( DST)
British Summer Time ( UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy ( AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint George
ISO 3166 code GB-ENG
  1. ^ While England does not have its own legislative assembly, a Legislative Grand Committee composed of only the 533 MPs representing English constituencies can scrutinise and vote on bills going through parliament which only affect England.

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. [6] [7] [8] It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. [9] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. [10] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. [11]

England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, and the Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. [nb 1] England's population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. [12]

The Kingdom of England—which after 1535 included Wales—ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. [13] [14] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Toponymy

The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". [15] The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area (present-day German state of Schleswig-Holstein) of the Baltic Sea. [16] The earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late ninth century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense. [17] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. [18]

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. [19] The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. [20] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons (Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. [21] In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn); [22] similarly, the Welsh name for the English language is "Saesneg".

An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo: [23] "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne". [23] [24] But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written later in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover (the only part of Britain visible from the European mainland) [25] or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" [26] in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, that is attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima [27] to which the former presumably served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. [28] Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend.

Other Languages
Acèh: Inggréh
адыгабзэ: Англие
Afrikaans: Engeland
Akan: Ngyiresi
Alemannisch: England
አማርኛ: ኢንግላንድ
Ænglisc: Englaland
العربية: إنجلترا
aragonés: Anglaterra
armãneashti: Anglia
অসমীয়া: ইংলেণ্ড
asturianu: Inglaterra
Avañe'ẽ: Ingyaterra
azərbaycanca: İngiltərə
تۆرکجه: اینگیلیس
Bân-lâm-gú: Eng-lân
башҡортса: Англия
беларуская: Англія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ангельшчына
भोजपुरी: इंग्लैंड
Bikol Central: Inglatera
български: Англия
Boarisch: England
bosanski: Engleska
brezhoneg: Bro-Saoz
буряад: Англи
català: Anglaterra
Чӑвашла: Англи
Cebuano: Inglatera
čeština: Anglie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Inglatera
Cymraeg: Lloegr
dansk: England
davvisámegiella: Englánda
Deutsch: England
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިނގިރޭސިވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Engelska
eesti: Inglismaa
Ελληνικά: Αγγλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Inghiltèra
español: Inglaterra
Esperanto: Anglio
estremeñu: Ingalaterra
euskara: Ingalaterra
فارسی: انگلستان
Fiji Hindi: England
føroyskt: Ongland
français: Angleterre
Frysk: Ingelân
furlan: Anglie
Gaeilge: Sasana
Gaelg: Sostyn
Gàidhlig: Sasainn
galego: Inglaterra
Gĩkũyũ: Ngeretha
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इंग्लंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: England
한국어: 잉글랜드
Հայերեն: Անգլիա
हिन्दी: इंग्लैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Jendźelska
hrvatski: Engleska
Ido: Anglia
Ilokano: Inglatera
Bahasa Indonesia: Inggris
interlingua: Anglaterra
Interlingue: Anglia
Ирон: Англис
isiZulu: INgilandi
íslenska: England
italiano: Inghilterra
עברית: אנגליה
Basa Jawa: Inggris
Kapampangan: Inglaterra
ქართული: ინგლისი
қазақша: Англия
kernowek: Pow Sows
Kiswahili: Uingereza
Kreyòl ayisyen: Angletè
Kurdî: Îngilistan
Кыргызча: Англия
Ladino: Inglaterra
лезги: Англия
Latina: Anglia
latviešu: Anglija
Lëtzebuergesch: England
lietuvių: Anglija
Ligure: Inghiltæra
Limburgs: Ingeland
lingála: Ingɛlandi
lumbaart: Inghiltèra
magyar: Anglia
मैथिली: इङ्ल्यान्ड
македонски: Англија
മലയാളം: ഇംഗ്ലണ്ട്
Malti: Ingilterra
Māori: Ingarangi
मराठी: इंग्लंड
მარგალური: ინგლისი
مصرى: انجلترا
Bahasa Melayu: England
Baso Minangkabau: Inggirih
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: England
монгол: Англи
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အင်္ဂလန်နိုင်ငံ
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Peretania
Nederlands: Engeland
Nedersaksies: Engelaand (regio)
नेपाली: इङ्ल्यान्ड
Napulitano: Ngreterra
нохчийн: Англи
Nordfriisk: Ingelun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ingland
norsk: England
norsk nynorsk: England
Nouormand: Angliétèrre
occitan: Anglatèrra
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Angliya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇੰਗਲੈਂਡ
پنجابی: انگلستان
Papiamentu: Inglatera
پښتو: انګلېنډ
Patois: Ingglan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អង់គ្លេស
Picard: Ingueltière
Piemontèis: Anghiltèra
Tok Pisin: Inglan
Plattdüütsch: England
polski: Anglia
português: Inglaterra
Qaraqalpaqsha: Angliya
română: Anglia
rumantsch: Engalterra
Runa Simi: Inlatirra
русиньскый: Анґлія
русский: Англия
Gagana Samoa: 'Egelani
संस्कृतम्: इङ्ग्लेण्ड्
Scots: Ingland
Seeltersk: Änglound
Sesotho: Engelane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Engêlanê
shqip: Anglia
sicilianu: Nglaterra
සිංහල: එංගලන්තය
Simple English: England
سنڌي: انگلينڊ
SiSwati: Ngilandi
slovenčina: Anglicko
slovenščina: Anglija
ślůnski: Yngland
Soomaaliga: Ingiriiska
کوردی: ئینگلتەرا
српски / srpski: Енглеска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Engleska
Basa Sunda: Inggris
suomi: Englanti
svenska: England
Tagalog: Inglatera
татарча/tatarça: Англия
తెలుగు: ఇంగ్లాండు
tetun: Inglaterra
тоҷикӣ: Англия
Türkçe: İngiltere
Türkmençe: Angliýa
тыва дыл: Англия
удмурт: Англия
українська: Англія
vèneto: Inghiltera
vepsän kel’: Anglii
Tiếng Việt: Anh
Volapük: Linglän
Võro: Inglüsmaa
文言: 英格蘭
West-Vlams: Iengeland
Winaray: Inglaterra
吴语: 英格兰
Xitsonga: England
ייִדיש: ענגלאנד
粵語: 英倫
Zazaki: İngıltere
Zeêuws: Iengeland
žemaitėška: Onglėjė
中文: 英格兰
डोटेली: इङ्ल्याण्ड