Endemism

The orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea) is exclusively found in South African fynbos vegetation.
Bicolored frog (Clinotarsus curtipes) is endemic to the Western Ghats of India

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.

Etymology

The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists as the equivalent of "endemism",[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917.[2] Precinction was perhaps first used by Frank and McCoy.[3][4] Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900:[5] "I use the word precinctive in the sense of 'confined to the area under discussion' ... 'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.

Other Languages
العربية: توطن
aragonés: Endemismo
asturianu: Endemismu
azərbaycanca: Endemik
беларуская: Эндэмік
български: Ендемит
bosanski: Endem
brezhoneg: Brosezadegezh
català: Endemisme
čeština: Endemit
dansk: Endemisk
Deutsch: Endemit
eesti: Endeem
Ελληνικά: Ενδημισμός
español: Endemismo
Esperanto: Endemio
euskara: Endemismo
فارسی: بوم‌زادی
français: Endémisme
galego: Endemismo
한국어: 고유성
հայերեն: Էնդեմիկ
hrvatski: Endem
Ilokano: Endemismo
Bahasa Indonesia: Endemisme
italiano: Endemismo
ქართული: ენდემები
қазақша: Эндемик
kurdî: Endemîk
latgaļu: Eņdemizmys
Latina: Endemismus
latviešu: Endēms
Lëtzebuergesch: Endemismus
lietuvių: Endemizmas
македонски: Ендемизам
മലയാളം: തദ്ദേശീയത
Bahasa Melayu: Endemik
日本語: 固有種
norsk: Endemisk
norsk nynorsk: Endemisme
occitan: Endemisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Endemiklar
polski: Endemit
português: Endemismo
română: Endemism
русиньскый: Ендем
русский: Эндемик
Scots: Endemism
සිංහල: ආවේණික
Simple English: Endemism
slovenčina: Endemit
slovenščina: Endemit
српски / srpski: Ендемизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Endem
svenska: Endemism
Tagalog: Endemismo
українська: Ендемік
vèneto: Endemismo
Tiếng Việt: Đặc hữu
Winaray: Endemismo
中文: 特有種