Empiricism

John Locke (1632–1704), a leading philosopher of British empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasises the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions.[2] However, empiricists may argue that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3]

Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasises evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation.

Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, says that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification".[4] Empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the scientific method.

Etymology

The English term empirical derives from the Ancient Greek word ἐμπειρία, empeiria, which is cognate with and translates to the Latin experientia, from which are derived the word experience and the related experiment.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Empirisme
አማርኛ: ዳሳሻዊነት
asturianu: Empirismu
беларуская: Эмпірызм
български: Емпиризъм
català: Empirisme
čeština: Empirismus
Cymraeg: Empiriaeth
dansk: Empirisme
Deutsch: Empirismus
eesti: Empirism
Ελληνικά: Εμπειρισμός
español: Empirismo
Esperanto: Empiriismo
euskara: Enpirismo
français: Empirisme
galego: Empirismo
贛語: 經驗主義
ગુજરાતી: અનુભવવાદ
한국어: 경험론
հայերեն: Էմպիրիզմ
हिन्दी: अनुभववाद
hrvatski: Empirizam
Bahasa Indonesia: Empirisme
íslenska: Raunhyggja
italiano: Empirismo
ქართული: ემპირიზმი
қазақша: Эмпиризм
kurdî: Empîrîzm
Latina: Empirismus
latviešu: Empīrisms
lietuvių: Empirizmas
magyar: Empirizmus
македонски: Емпиризам
മലയാളം: അനുഭവവാദം
मराठी: अनुभववाद
Bahasa Melayu: Empirisisme
Nederlands: Empirisme
日本語: 経験論
norsk: Empirisme
norsk nynorsk: Empirisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Empirizm
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਨੁਭਵਵਾਦ
Piemontèis: Empirism
Plattdüütsch: Empirismus
polski: Empiryzm
português: Empirismo
română: Empirism
русский: Эмпиризм
Scots: Empiricism
Simple English: Empiricism
سنڌي: تجربيت
slovenčina: Empirizmus
српски / srpski: Емпиризам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Empirizam
suomi: Empirismi
svenska: Empirism
Türkçe: Deneycilik
українська: Емпіризм
اردو: تجربیت
Winaray: Empirisismo
吴语: 經驗主義
粵語: 經驗主義
中文: 经验主义