House of Saud and its allies quickly rose to become the dominant sovereignty in Arabia by first conquering
Najd, and then expanding their influence over the eastern coast which measures from
Kuwait down to the northern borders of
Oman. Furthermore, Saud's forces brought the highlands of
'Asir under their
suzerainty, while Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab wrote letters to people and scholars to enter the field of
jihad. After many military campaigns, Muhammad bin Saud died in 1765, leaving the leadership to his son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad. Saud's forces went so far as to
gain command of the
holy city of
Karbala in 1801. Here they destroyed grave markers of saints and monuments and killed over 5000 civilians.
 Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab died in 1792. In 1803, eleven years after Wahhab's death, the son of Abdul Aziz Bin Muhammad,
Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud, sent out forces to bring the region of
Hejaz under his rule.
Ta'if was the first city to be captured, and later the two holy cities of
Medina. This was seen as a major challenge to the authority of the
Ottoman Empire, which had exercised its rule over the holy cities since 1517.