Emilio Aguinaldo

His Excellency
Emilio Aguinaldo
QSC CCLH
Emilio Aguinaldo ca. 1919 (Restored).jpg
Aguinaldo in 1919
1st President of the Philippines[2]
In office
January 23, 1899[a] – March 23, 1901[b]
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Diego de los Ríos (as Governor-General of the Philippines)
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Officially Manuel Quezon (as President of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935)
Unofficially Miguel Malvar (as President of the First Philippine Republic)
President of the Revolutionary Government
In office
June 23, 1898 – January 22, 1899
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Revolutionary government superseded by the First Philippine Republic)
Dictator of the Dictatorial Government
In office
May 24, 1898 – June 23, 1898
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Dictatorial government replaced by a revolutionary government with Aguinaldo assuming the title president)
President of the Biak-na-Bato
In office
November 2 – December 14, 1897
Vice PresidentMariano Trias
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Tejeros Revolutionary Government
In office
March 22 – November 1, 1897
Vice PresidentMariano Trias
Preceded byPosition established (Unofficially held by Andres Bonifacio as leader of the Katipunan)
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Tejeros government superseded by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato)
Personal details
Born(1869-03-22)March 22, 1869[c]
Kawit, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines
DiedFebruary 6, 1964(1964-02-06) (aged 94)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting placeAguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite
Political partySee footnote[infobox 1]
Spouse(s)
Hilaria del Rosario
(m. 1896; d. 1921)

María Agoncillo
(m. 1930; d. 1963)
Children5 (see below)
Alma materColegio de San Juan de Letran
ProfessionPolitician
Military leader
AwardsPHL Legion of Honor - Chief Commander BAR.png
Philippine Legion of Honor
PHL Quezon Service Cross BAR.png
Quezon Service Cross
ReligionRoman Catholicism later
Philippine Independent Church
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)"Kapitan Miong"
"Heneral Miong"
"El Caudillo"
"Magdalo"
"Hermano Colon"
Allegiance First Philippine Republic
Flag of the Tagalog people.svg Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Philippine revolution flag kkk1.svg Katipunan (Magdalo)
Service/branchPhilippine Army Seal 1897.jpgPhilippine Revolutionary Army
Years of service1897–1901
RankPR Ministro Mariscal.svg Minister/Field Marshal / Generalissimo
Battles/wars

Footnotes:

  1. ^ Although Aguinaldo ran for president in 1935 on the ticket of the National Socialist party,[10] in opening his campaign he disavowed association with any political party.[11]

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy QSC, CCLH [d] (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈmi.ljo a.ɣiˈnal.do] : March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901). He was captured in Palanan, Isabela by American forces on March 23, 1901, which brought an end to his presidency.

In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty and was subsequently exonerated.

Early life and career

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo Sr. was born on March 22, 1869 [c] in Cavite el Viejo (present-day Kawit), in Cavite province, to Carlos Jamir Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy-Aguinaldo,[d] a Tagalog Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio Sr. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos J. Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo (municipal governor) in the Spanish colonial administration and his grandparents Eugenio K. Aguinaldo and Maria Jamir-Aguinaldo. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasn't able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera in 1882.

Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 25, Aguinaldo became Cavite el Viejo's first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" (Municipal Governor-Captain) while on a business trip in Mindoro.

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