Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in
Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa,
 the son of
Maye Musk (née Haldeman), a model and
 and Errol Musk, a South African
electromechanical engineer, pilot, and sailor. He has a younger brother,
Kimbal (born 1972), and a younger sister,
Tosca (born 1974).
 His paternal grandmother was British, and he also has
Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry.
 His maternal grandfather was American, from Minnesota.
 After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria,
 which Musk chose two years after his parents split up, but now says was "not a good idea".
 As an adult, Musk has severed relations with his father.
 He has a half sister.
During his childhood he was an avid reader.
 At age 10, he developed an interest in
computing with the
 He taught himself
computer programming at the age of 12, sold the
code of a
video game he created called Blastar, to a magazine called PC and Office Technology, for approximately $500.
 A web version of the game is available online.
 His childhood reading included
Foundation series from which he drew the lesson that "you should try to take the set of actions that are likely to prolong civilization, minimize the probability of a dark age and reduce the length of a dark age if there is one."
Musk was severely bullied throughout his childhood,
 and was once hospitalized when a group of boys threw him down a flight of
stairs and then beat him until he lost
Waterkloof House Preparatory School, and
Bryanston High School
 before graduating from
Pretoria Boys High School. He moved to Canada in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday,
 after obtaining Canadian citizenship through his Canadian-born mother.
At the age of 17, Musk was accepted into
Queen's University in
Kingston, Ontario, for undergraduate study. In 1992, after spending two years at Queen's University, Musk transferred to the
University of Pennsylvania, where in May 1997 he received a
Bachelor of Science degree in
physics from its
College of Arts and Sciences, and a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from its
Wharton School of Business. Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelor's degree.
 While at the University of Pennsylvania, Musk and fellow Penn student
rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, using it as an unofficial
In 1995, at age 24, Musk moved to California to begin a PhD in
applied physics and
materials science at
Stanford University, but left the program after two days to pursue his entrepreneurial aspirations in the areas of the internet,
renewable energy and
 In 2002, he became a U.S. citizen.