Electromagnetic induction

Faraday's experiment showing induction between coils of wire: The liquid battery (right) provides a current that flows through the small coil (A), creating a magnetic field. When the coils are stationary, no current is induced. But when the small coil is moved in or out of the large coil (B), the magnetic flux through the large coil changes, inducing a current which is detected by the galvanometer (G).[1]

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday's law of induction. Lenz's law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday's law was later generalized to become the Maxwell–Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell equations in his theory of electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic induction has found many applications, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators.

History

A diagram of Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic flux of the left coil induces a current in the right coil.[2]
Faraday's disk (see homopolar generator)

Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday, published in 1831.[3][4] It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry in 1832.[5][6]

In Faraday's first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer).[citation needed] Based on his understanding of electromagnets, he expected that, when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. He saw a transient current, which he called a "wave of electricity", when he connected the wire to the battery and another when he disconnected it.[7] This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.[2] Within two months, Faraday found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").[8]

Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically.[9] An exception was James Clerk Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory.[9][10][11] In Maxwell's model, the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation, which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is slightly different from Faraday's original formulation and does not describe motional EMF. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations.

In 1834 Heinrich Lenz formulated the law named after him to describe the "flux through the circuit". Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction.

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Электрамагнітная індукцыя
brezhoneg: Red induktet
davvisámegiella: Indukšuvdna
한국어: 전자기 유도
Bahasa Indonesia: Induksi elektromagnetik
Kreyòl ayisyen: Endiksyon elektwomayetik
日本語: 電磁誘導
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Elektromagnetska indukcija
中文: 电磁感应