Electro-industrial is a music genre that emerged from industrial music in the mid-1980s. While EBM (electronic body music) has a minimal structure and clean production, electro-industrial tends to have a grittier, complex and layered sound. The style was pioneered by Skinny Puppy, Front Line Assembly, and other groups, either from Europe, North America and Australia. In the early 1990s, the style spawned the dark electro genre, and in the mid-/late-1990s, the aggrotech offshoot.[1] The fan base for the style is linked to the rivethead[1] subculture.


After the EBM movement faded in the early 1990s, electro-industrial increasingly attained popularity in the international club scene. In contrast to the straight EBM style, electro-industrial groups use harsher beats and raspy, distorted, or digitized vocals. In contrast to industrial rock, electro-industrial groups mostly avoided guitars, other than Skinny Puppy, who used E-Guitar Elements since the mid 80s in songs like Testure or Dig It.[2]

Electro-industrial was anticipated by 1980s groups such as SPK,[1][3] Die Form, Borghesia, Klinik, Skinny Puppy,[4][5] and Front Line Assembly.[5][6]

Prominent electro-industrial groups of the 1990s include Mentallo and the Fixer, Yeht Mae, Velvet Acid Christ, and Pulse Legion (U.S.);[7] Numb and Decoded Feedback[8] (Canada); X Marks the Pedwalk, Plastic Noise Experience, Wumpscut,[9][10][11] Haujobb,[12] Forma Tadre, KMFDM, and Putrefy Factor 7 (Germany); Leæther Strip[13] from Denmark;[14] and early Hocico, Cenobita and Amduscia from Mexico.

Since the mid-1990s, some electro-industrial groups added guitars and became associated with industrial metal; other groups, e. g. Skinny Puppy, Download, Gridlock and Haujobb, have incorporated elements of experimental electronic music styles like drum and bass, IDM, glitch and other electronica genres.